THE EARLY YEARS 1100 - 1600
3 Normandy 36 The Wars of the Roses
4 Caillouet 36 Joan Barrett
4 Cailly sur Eure 37 Sir William
4 The Domesday Book 37 Momentous Years
5 The Beaumonts 38 Rockborne
6 The Plantagenets 38 Thomas
7 Gloucestershire 39 Cheriton Fitzpaine
8 Philip and Hawisa 39 Bapton
9 King Richard, Prince John 39 Whitparish
10 The Giffards 39 Lillington
10 Wiltshire 39 Stalbridge and Stoford
10 Elias 40 Sir John of Rockborne
11 The Barons 41 Robert Keilway
12 Murder 42 The Second Sir William
12 Devon 43 Four Sons
13 Dorset 44 Two Queens
14 Location, Location, Location, 44 Francis
15 The French Connection 45 Stowford/Stafford
15 Coats of Arms 46 John of Colyton/Cullompton
17 Warrior Knights 47 Others
17 Stowford 47 Dorset in the 1500s
18 Bishop of Durham 49 The Dewlish Mystery
20 Wiltshire & Gloucestershire 50 Marnhull
21 More Murder and Mayhem 51 Wiltshire in the 1500s
21 Pears 52 Somerset in the 1500s
21 St Giles Church 54 Devon in the 1500s
22 The 1308 Will 55 Cornwall in the 1500s
22 The Giffard Inheritance 57 Other Counties
23 Somerset Hampshire
24 William and Eleanor Isle of Wight
24 De Stowford Sussex
25 Merchants and Shippers Berkshire
26 Troubles Kent 26 The Last Plantagenets Yorkshire
27 Cornwall London
27 Seven Generations 59 Ireland
28 Chenstone Manor 59 Nicholas of Forston and Charminster
29 Hereford and Gloucester 60 The Tudors
29 Stowford Again 60 The End of an Era
29 The Dorset Westons 61 After 1600
30 The Church
31 Family Descent
32 The Bingham Inheritance
33 Henry V
33 Sherborne Abbey
34 John Appendix 1 The Alias
35 William of Sherborne
36 Trouble in Cornwall Appendix 2 References
THE EARLY YEARS 1000-1600
A saga that is to some extent subjective supposition. A few fragmented facts that start with regal records and legal litigations, set against the known history of the time.
Over a period of years the efforts of a number of dedicated researchers have been able to unfold the story of the family in those early years.
Initially the names are of the few notabilities who, by virtue of position, performance, or penalty, have been recorded for posterity. Their families, and those between, are largely unknown. Their lives were the lives of other people of the time, affected by the social and political conditions of the time.
The story began in France, at that time a land fragmented into a number of Dukedoms and the relatively small Kingdom of France. In Normandy, where the Gallic inhabitants had the influence of their Celtic cousins, followed by the invading and settling Norsemen, in much the same way as had their English neighbours.
It is necessary to spend some time setting the historical scene in those early times.
The area of northern France where today the village of Caillouet lies, was originally inhabited by a Celtic Gaulish tribe, the Velliocassi. After the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar’s lieutenant Sabinius, the Romans built roads and established the town of Mediolanus, now the centre of Evreux, where today the importance of the town is recorded by the presence at nearby Vieil-Evreux, of a 20,000 seat amphitheatre.
With the decline of the Roman Empire, came Christianity. St Taurin founded the Bishopric of Evreux in the 4th Century. Two centuries later Irish monks were founding great Abbeys there.
The Carolingians under Charlemagne took the region in 751, and held it for a further two centuries, until the Norsemen came.
Noted for their rapacity, the Vikings from the north began raiding the land in the 8th Century. Travelling up the Seine, they had captured Rouen by 885, and in 911 King Charles III of France ceded much of the lower Seine area, including the Diocese of Evreux, to the leader of the Norsemen, Rollo. Their Capital was at Rouen.
The Norsemen were converted to Christianity, adopted the French language, and became the Normans. In the next century their leader, Duke William of Normandy, was to become William the Conqueror.
William of course went to England in 1066, although on a return to France in 1079, he was actually defeated by his eldest son Robert Curthouse. Both France and England are the settings for our early story.
William died in 1087, and was succeeded by his second son, as King William II. He was in turn succeeded by another son, Henry, in 1100.
In France Robert continued to rule Normandy until 1106, when Henry regained it.
King Henry I of England remained in control of Normandy until the arrival on the scene of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou.
The Irish monks had taken apple trees to Normandy. Today, apples, cider and calvados are traditionally associated with Normandy, as are pears and pear dishes, such as rissoles de poires, and pommes de terre aux poireaux en blanquette. No doubt the apples and pears arrived together.
Later, in England, pears would appear on the family Coat of Arms.
80km west of Paris, 10km from Evreux, by an old Roman Road, lies the village of Caillouet.
In French the name Caillouet means a pebbly place, a dry and stony place, and so it may have been when the village there was founded.
In 1066, it would have been near the boundary of Normandy with the Duchy of Blois, the people there may have owed allegiance to either Dukedom.
It has been said that in Normandy in the 11th and 12th Centuries there were three classes of people: the nobles, the peasants and the clergy. A man from Caillouet, living in that region, would be likely to carry arms, and be perhaps a little noble.
CAILLY SUR EURE
Despite the first known reference to a recognisable version of the Caillouet name not occurring in England until the 1100s, we now know that a family member from the early period could be known by versions of both names, de Caillouet and de Cailly.
Cailly sur Eure is a village on the Eure River, a few kilometres to the north west of Caillouet. The Eure is a tributary of the Seine.
Although there is no specific evidence available, it appears very likely that people from the two villages were closely related.
We know little of the de Cailly family in Normandy, but one at least represented Duke William of Normandy, and presumably Normandy was where their principal allegiance lay.
Shortly before the Conquest Osbern le Vicomte de Cailly was sent by William, as an envoy to King Edward the Confessor in England.
Osbern would have been born around 1010-20, and his son Guillaume de Cailly was to be a "Companion of the Conqueror" in 1066. Presumably he crossed with William, but because some records do not mention him, it may be that he was under age, or already in England.
Osbert and Guillaume are now regarded as the forebears of the de Cailly and de Caillouet descendants to follow in England. Guillaume is recorded as marrying Maud de Beaumont, somewhere about 1070.
They had four sons, William, who held lands in East Anglia and Sussex, Humphrey, lands in Norfolk, Osbern, who took the name de Preaux, and Roger, who took over Cailly and most of the lands in Normandy, and who, with William, appears later in this story.
THE DOMESDAY BOOK
By far the most important document of the time, the Domesday Book of 1086 was an amazingly detailed census of England, hurriedly but efficiently compiled by William I, to raise taxes to pay for the huge fleet, and 8000 more Normans, brought to England to combat the anticipated attack by Danish King Cnut.
Property ownership, relative back to the pre-Conquest days of Edward the Confessor, farm stock and equipment, was covered. It was said to have been so thorough that no land nor any animal was missed; although sheep, which were tax exempt, were usually omitted. The most senior of four Commissioners for the Survey was Walter Giffard.
The new geld/tax was worth more than a quarter of the income of a property.
Population numbers were included, but unfortunately not the names of lesser knights, freemen, or the villeins, bordars or serfs. There would be no identification of property and family names again until after 1155, a break of 70 years, and two/three generations.
There is no specific mention of a de Caillouet in the Domesday Book, although Guillaume de Cailly is there. Osbern Giffard is however recorded as holding the 10 hide Wiltshire manor of Terintone, later called Tytherton/Kayleways. There were 5 hides per knight, so the Wiltshire property may have supported two knights in 1086. We do not know their names, although the later names for the two manors of Tytherton/Kayleways, and Tytherton/Lucas, could indicate the names of the families there at that time.
The Giffards also held Brimpsfield and Side in Gloucestershire. Brimpsfield was later to have one of the smaller castles built in the early 1100s, said to have become of great importance, when the Barons, with their irrepressible armies, broke the feudal system.
It would be referred to again in the 1300s.
Among the major property holders in 1086, particularly in Devon, was Robert de Beaumont.
While little is known of the de Cailly/Caillouet families at this time, the powerful Beaumont family, Counts of Meulan in Normandy, later Earls of Leicester, Warwick, Worcester, and Bedford, in England, were to have a prominent position in both France and England.
And in the de Cailly/Caillouet family lives. They set the scene for the family history.
Roger de Beaumont, described as "the noblest, the wealthiest, and the most valiant seigneur of Normandy", had married Adeline de Meulan, heiress daughter of Count Waleran III of Meulan about 1048. Upon the death of his mother, their son Robert inherited the title Count of Meulan.
Roger was considered too old for an active role in the invasion of England, but provided 60 ships.
His son Robert, given command of the right wing of the Infantry at the Battle of Hastings, was said to have fought bravely. He was granted 91 English lordships and manors. Among many in Devon, were Cheldon, Chawleigh, Chumleigh, and Dolton.
In 1107, after further service to King William and William's sons, he was created Earl of Leicester.
A man of some import, he was not only an advisor to William II in England, he was also advisor to Robert Curthouse of Normandy, and to King Philip I of France.
Roger's younger son Henry did not cross the Channel with Robert, and spent much of his life in Normandy. He was overshadowed by Robert but, for his services in the later 1088 rebellion, was created Earl of Warwick.
Henry married Marguerite, daughter of Geoffry II of Perche. Their son Roger became 2nd Earl of Warwick. Another son, Henry de Neubourg, appears to have inherited estates in Dorset and Devon.
Robert de Beaumont married Isabel de Vermandois, a lady descended from most of the ruling houses of Europe. Their eldest son, born 1104, became Waleran IV, Count of Meulan. His twin brother Robert, would become the 2nd Earl of Leicester. The youngest son Hugh, 1st Earl of Bedford.
Their father Robert, Earl of Leicester, died in 1118.
It is not clear whether the Beaumont family by this time was living permanently in England, although it is presumed most were.
After the death of the elder Robert in 1118, Robert was in 1120 declared of age. When he became 2nd Earl of Leicester he inherited his father's lands in England.
His elder twin brother Waleran took the title Count of Meulan but, apart from a large estate around Sturminster Marshall in Dorset, principally held French lands and castles, including the Forest of Brotonne.
The twins were however frequently seen together at the Court of King Henry.
King Henry I died in 1135, and a Civil War between Henry's daughter Matilda and his nephew Stephen of Blois, who became King Stephen, broke out, to last nearly 20 years. A period known as the Anarchy.
Waleran, after his marriage to Matilda, the infant daughter of King Stephen, who died aged 4, later married Agnes, daughter of the Count of Evreux. Caillouet was near Evreux. Waleran was particularly active in fighting in England and France, and about 1138 was created Earl of Worcester.
The city of Worcester was sacked by Earl Robert of Gloucester the next year, and Waleran lost most of his lands and castles, in both England and France. He was later King Stephen's Lieutenant in Normandy, and regained much of his power and lands. A leader of the Second Crusade in 1146, he was shipwrecked on his return the next year. He founded several Abbeys, but his power declined, and he died a monk, in 1166.
Waleran's son Robert, born c 1142, however became Robert II Count of Meulan.
Robert's huntsman was Alexander de Caillouet, who would presumably have been born around 1140-50.
Robert de Beaumont, the 2nd Earl of Leicester, married Amice de Montfort, some time after 1120. Their children were Hawisa, Robert, who became the 3rd Earl, Isabel, and Margaret.
Despite the turmoil in England in the first half of the 12th century, Robert de Beaumont is recorded throughout this period, as holding lands, appearing at the English Court, and in private conflict with the Earl of Chester.
He, and his brother Waleran, were also heavily involved in the Civil War, in support of King Stephen.
As a consequence he lost the Port of Wareham, and his estates in Dorset, to Earl Robert of Gloucester.
King Stephen did however award him the City and Castle of Hereford.
After the death of Gloucester in 1147, Robert de Beaumont was prominent in the peace negotiations that led to the peaceful accession of Plantagenet King Henry II in 1154.
He was constantly in company with King Henry at that time, became Chief Justicar of England, and had his estates in Normandy restored to him.
Robert de Beaumont died in 1168.
Hawisa de Beaumont, his eldest daughter, would marry Philip de Caillouet/Kayleway.
The background to these families involved in the events of the 1100s, was the rise of the House of Plantagenet. After King Henry, Plantagenet Kings would rule England for the next 300 years.
Further to the west of Normandy, the French house of Anjou had been growing under Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, and they soon dominated the region. By 1144 Geoffrey was also Duke of Normandy. Although 11 years his senior, in 1128 Geoffrey had married the haughty Matilda, widow of Henry V, Emperor of Germany. She was also the daughter and heiress of Henry I, King of England and Duke of Normandy.
King Henry I died in December 1135, while on a hunting expedition in the Foret de Lyons in eastern Normandy, from a “surfeit of Lampreys". His nephew Stephen of Blois claimed the throne, crossed the Channel, and had himself crowned ahead of Matilda, Henry's daughter, who was technically the rightful heir/heiress, and had been earlier accepted by the English Barons.
Matilda and her half brother Robert Fitzroy Earl of Gloucester, followed to England from Normandy in the Autumn of 1139, with an army of mercenaries, known as the Angevin Party.
While Geoffrey Plantagenet was busy taking over Normandy, Matilda and Robert fought a Civil War in England against her cousin Stephen. Matilda herself held the throne for a short time.
After many years of strife, Geoffrey and Matilda’s son Henry was eventually acknowledged by King Stephen, who had lost his only son, as heir to the throne of England in 1153, the year before Stephen himself died.
The fighting was located largely between Gloucestershire and the West Country, but Gloucestershire bore the brunt of the action. The battles and general anarchy left the villages empty. Scribe William of Malmesbury described the scene at the time: ---- “England was swamped by a bestial horde of barbarians, who had come simply for the fighting ---- they conspired to commit crime and outrage”.
Robert had actually died in 1147, before King Stephen, while Matilda lived on, to die at Rouen in 1167.
Henry Plantagenet assumed the throne of England upon the death of King Stephen in 1154 and, as King Henry II, reigned over England, Normandy, Anjou, Acquitaine, and Gascony. He had suzerainty over Wales, Scotland, and Ireland.
The most powerful ruler in Western Europe.
When Henry took the Vexin, a ”crucial strip of land” between Normandy and the small kingdom of France, as a dowry in 1160, the location of Caillouet was securely part of his domain.
If Caillouet in France was the origin of the Kellaway/Callaway names and families, and there are Caillouets living in France, and in the Americas, today, the location of the village could have had relevance to the arrival in England of the family forebears.
From early in the 1100s, Gloucestershire had been under the control of Robert Fitzroy, Earl of Gloucester, the illegitimate son of Henry I. His only legitimate son having drowned on the White Ship in 1120.
After the death of Henry, and the accession to the English throne of his cousin Stephen in 1135, Robert had joined with his half sister Matilda to contest the Kingdom. As there had also, between 1119 and 1122, been two earthquakes and a great fire in Gloucester town itself, life in the County had not been good. It was to get worse with “the Anarchy”, the Civil War that developed after 1137, and the “19 long winters”. Before Henry Plantagenet was proclaimed King Henry II of England, and life could return to some normalcy.
Roger de Kaillewi, also called de Cailli, and believed to be the youngest of the four sons of Guillaume de Cailly, is recorded in the St Peters Gloucester Abbey records as a witness in a Hereford Land Grant to the Cathedral during the reign of Henry I from 1100–1135.
The “de Cailli” version of his name is not phonetically very similar to de Caillouet, but later family members confirm a connection, relating the two villages, and confirming a close family relationship.
While this record indicates the connection between the two names, two families, and the two locations in Normandy, the difficulty in “anglicising” the name in a time of very limited literacy, gave rise to innumerable spelling versions, then, and for many years to come.
In some Ancient Deeds, Guillaume de Cailli, and his son, have been found referred to as William Caylewei, the elder as William de Cailgi, when referred to as holding lands at Domesday.
Philip, and Roger Caylewei were grandsons of the elder William Caylewei and Maud de Beaumont.
Philip Caylewei/Chaillewai would later marry Hawisa de Beaumont. They were kinsmen of the Beaumonts.
Philip's father, the younger William Caylewei, was granted land in Strensham Worcestershire.
A short time later a quitclaim of land, convent and almoner, to the abbot of Pershore Abbey by Philip Kayleway of Strengesham/Strensham in Worcestershire, confirmed family presence there.
William's widow Amy would marry Henry Pomeroy of Priory Pomeroy.
Although Guillaume de Cailli had been a "Companion of the Conqueror" in 1066, there had been a second “invasion” by some 8000 more Normans in 1084. There were also other incursions, both ways across the Channel, during the first 50 years of Norman rule, but these two dates seem to offer the most logical times for a man from Caillouet to arrive.
There may also have been more than one family member arrive from Normandy during those early years.
PHILIP and HAWISA
Robert, the 1st Earl of Gloucester, died in 1147. Somewhere about the year 1150, according to a Llanthony Cartulary concerning a knights fee quitclaim regarding Ayleworth near Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, his son William, the 2nd Earl of Gloucester, married Hawisa, the widow of Philip de Chaillewai.
Hawisa was the eldest daughter of Robert de Beaumont, the 2nd Earl of Leicester.
As probably the two most important families in England, her marriage to William of Gloucester would be a logical family liaison, subsequent to the resolution of the Civil War with the accession of Henry II.
It would unite the Beaumonts with the English Royal House.
Initially Philip de Chaillewai was only known form a reference in the 1165 Gloucester Pipe Rolls regarding property in Wiltshire. It has taken some time to learn his story, and that of his family.
His grandfather Guillaume de Cailly had married Maud de Beaumont about 1070. Such a marriage with the Beaumonts confirms that the two families were on the same high social level. They may have been related earlier but, from that time at least, the family became kinsmen.
Philip would have married Hawisa somewhere around 1140-1145. Clearly chosen ahead of other suitors, he must have been accepted as an appropriate husband. He was in fact her cousin.
Had he lived, he may have himself have had a prominent place in English History.
Hawisa was born around 1125-1130, and died in 1197. Philip, was probably born around 1110-1120, and their marriage would have taken place during the Anarchy period, probably around 1140-1145.
The name Philip, uncommon in England, could indicate some association with the French Court.
Philip I was King of France from 1052-1108, and others followed. The name was seemingly otherwise neither English nor Norman.
He was presumably relatively young when he died, and very likely it was not from natural causes.
It was probably after the fighting against Matilda and the Gloucesters, perhaps during Robert of Leicester's private war with the Earl of Chester, between 1141 and 1149. And it now seems, possibly not in England.
We do not know.
However there were later family references to property in Worcester. As Waleran was Earl of Worcester, as well as Count of Meulan in France, suggests the likelihood that he was serving with Waleran. Waleran had gone back to Normandy about 1141, and was with Geoffrey of Anjou at the seige of Rouen in 1143/4. In 1147 however he was joint leader of the Anglo-Normans on the Second Crusade to Palestine.
The expedition, said to have been of some 500,000 people, collapsed at Damascus, and on his return Waleran was shipwrecked, probably on the southern French coast.
Philip may have been on that expedition, perhaps died, or had suffered from serious injury or disease.
Again we do not know, but 1148 could have been a possible year for his death.
He would have died before the peaceful arrival of Henry Plantagenet as King Henry II in 1154. And, as it was supported by the Beaumonts, that would not appear to have been the occasion.
Philip and Hawisa had at least two sons, Philip and Hugh, and a daughter, presumably born around 1145-1148. Reference is made in the Court records of King Henry II, to Hawisa receiving 12 marks of silver for the property of Ayleworth, her daughter 4 marks as a dowry, and Philip a rent of 8 shillings.
In 1189, the year King Henry II died, and six years after the death of Earl William, reference is made to Hugh de Kayleway receiving 11 marks of silver for a knights fee for the same property.
Later Hugh's son Thomas would grant land in Strensham Worcestershire to his brother William.
Early Pipe Rolls between 1164-1169 indicate that Philip de Chaileway/Kayleway held property in Gloucestershire and Worcestershire, presumably Strensham, as well as in Wiltshire. While Nicholas, presumably Philip's brother, was mentioned holding Mokisbreare in Devonshire, in 1170.
They may only be available record references, but the dates seem to suggest that there was some resolution of family property at this time. Perhaps in some way linked to the marriage of Hawisa to Earl William of Gloucester, and determination of the property of her previous family. Perhaps when the sons came of age. Perhaps also relative to the fact that Hawisa's father Earl Robert was Chief Justicar of England from 1154 until his death in 1168.
He supervised the administration and legal process in England during that time, and could be expected to have been considerate of his own family, particularly just prior to his own death.
Family spellings at the time varied considerably. Later Pipe Rolls recorded what appear to be members of both the by then separating de Chailewai and de Cailli families, although it is evident the name could still be shared into the 1200s.
Some, presumably of the de Chailewai family, were Gilbertus de Caleweleia/Coleuill in Surrey between 1176-1184, Ricardus de Coleuill in Lincolnshire between 1179-1180, Rogero de Chailloei in Wiltshire between 1181-2, Willemus de Coleuill in Lincolnshire and Wiltshire between 1179 and 1184, Osberto Caiuel in Dorset and Smerset beteen 1181-2. 20 years later Nicolaus de Cailloel in Devonshire in 1204, Herberto de Cailloel in Wiltshire in 1206, and Alexandri Cailluel in Gloucestershire in 1214.
The later spellings are similar to the Pear variety to become popular in England in the 1200s.
In 1201 Ralph de Kelliou was charged at Launceston in Cornwall. He may have been the same Ralph who would appear later in Dorset.
KING RICHARD, PRINCE JOHN
Twenty four years after the 1165 Pipe Roll records, 1189 saw the death of Henry II, and accession of King Richard I, the Lionheart.
Much is made of the conflict between Richard and John in the fictional tales of Robin Hood, and there were difficulties between the brothers.
Richard was to devote a lot of his time to the Crusades, and was rarely in England during his ten year reign. John, his youngest brother, born in 1167, remained in England.
He was betrothed as a child to his second cousin Hadwiga/Isabella, daughter of Hawisa and William, second Earl of Gloucester.
Early betrothal was not unusual among the nobility at the time.
Hawisa had three children by Earl William of Gloucester, their daughter Isabella also being born in 1167. Isabella was formally married to Prince John in 1189, John receiving the Counties of Somerset, Gloucester, Devon and Cornwall, as a dowry.
As Earl William had died in 1183, and her only brother had predeceased him, Isabella was granted the title of Countess of Gloucester, to continue the title.
John ascended the throne upon the death of his childless brother King Richard in 1199.
The marriage between John and Isabella was however also childless and was annulled in 1200, on the somewhat contrived grounds of consanguity. They were cousins.
By his mother Hawisa’s remarriage, the younger Philip de Caillouet would have become the step-son of the Earl of Gloucester, as would Hugh, presumably Philip’s younger brother. Philip and Hugh would thus have become the half brothers of the future Queen of England.
Born about 1145, Philip was presumably the Philip de Chaillewai recorded in the Gloucester Pipe Rolls as holding property in Wiltshire in 1165, perhaps the manor later known as Tytherton/Kellaways. As well as Strensham in Worcestershire.
In Gloucestershire in 1167, Philip had been recorded with Elias Giffard, indicating the two families were close at that time. About 20-25 years later, Elias de Cailleway would marry his daughter Bertha.
Hugh held property at Aylesworth in Gloucestershire in 1189. He was also recorded as holding Strensham in Worcestershre, which later passed to his son William.
This could indicate that Philip had died without issue.
Walter Giffard had been designated Standard Bearer for Duke William at the Battle of Hastings.
Although he declined on grounds of age, he supported the 1066 invasion with 30 ships and 100 knights.
He was one of the most important figures at William’s Court in France before, and in England after, the Conquest. Created Earl of Buckingham in 1097, he lived on until 1104.
The baronnial Giffard family would be powerful in England for another 250 years, until the execution of John Giffard in 1327.
The Giffards, who were said to have come from the same locality in France as the de Cailly family, were to become related to, and play an important part in the story of the de Caillouet family in the latter half, at least, of this period.
In Wiltshire, 30km east of Bristol and 5km from Chippenham, by the River Avon and Maud Heath’s Causeway, is the locality of Tytherton and Kellaways.
Philip de Chailewai is recorded in the Gloucester Pipe Rolls as holding land in Wiltshire in 1165. It seems possible that, if not granted the property at that time, the family had been in occupation of the land earlier, perhaps from about 1154, if not much earlier. Indicating a likely early association with the Giffards.
William de Caillewey, and in 1227 Elias de Kaillewey, are the earliest recorded holders of one of the manors of Tytherton, Wiltshire. Elias’s daughter Matilda had been in the news earlier, in 1220, and Philip, a son or brother, in 1226, but it is not clear where Elias was living at that time. Thomas de Kaillewai was recorded as paying fees in Wiltshire in 1242.
The family was however to hold the manor for, it is said, seven generations. Until, it seems, around 1400.
While William would appear to have been the more senior, Elias assumes a position of considerable importance with the family. He would have been born around 1165-70, presumably the grandson of Philip and Hawisa. The son of either Philip, or possibly his brother Hugh.
Around 1190, he married Bertha Giffard, the sister of Elias Giffard, and the daughter of Elias, two of four with the same name descended from Osbern Giffard of Brimpsfield in Gloucestershire. He was also the cousin of Rosamund Clifford (Fair Rosamund), the mistress of King Henry II. Rosamund and Henry’s son William would become William Longsword, Earl of Salisbury, Wiltshire. Another connection with the Royal House.
Bertha's father or grandfather, both named Elias, had been mentioned with Philip de Chailewai, the presumed father of Elias, in Gloucestershire in 1166. Suggesting earlier connection with the Giffard family, and it is likely that the marriage between Elias and Bertha had been prearranged.
Elias de Kaillewey, the holder of the Wiltshire manor at Tytherton, was to be the father of a second Elias, grandfather of John, and great grandfather of another John.
His great great grandson, yet another John, was, temporarily at least, to inherit the substantial properties of the executed Sir John Giffard, over 100 years later.
Today we see Elias and his descendants as providing continuous descent from Osbert de Cailly to the Dorset family of the 1300s, and Rockbourne knights of the 1500s.
As Sir Ellis, Elias was a witness to land sales in 1240. Tuderinton/Kaylewent Wiltshire, in 1242, was evidently held by him as a knights fee of John Giffard. Whether Thomas was also there, or possibly held the second knights fee at that time, is not clear, but he could have gone north to Durham. Apart from King John, this John Giffard may also have been the reason for what were to be three succeeding Johns in Elias's family.
“Ellis” and William were involved with sureties in 1249, and these two were presumably his sons. Ellis was a juror the same year. Father and son Elias were referred to in 1251.
Whether as a result of the marriage to Bertha, or as evidence of previous connections, early in the 1200s the Giffard manors of Brimpsfield and Side in Gloucestershire, were held by family members. Nicholas de Kaillewey is referred to at Brimpsfield, Adam de Caylewe/Kaylli/Caley and his wife Mabel, daughter of Richard Giffard, at Side. Nicholas de Cailleweye, the son of Elias, made a grant to the Hospital of Jerusalem in 1226, and to St Bartholomews of Brimpsfield about 1230, while Adam and Mabel are referred to at Side in 1232, and again in 1242. Simon, presumably their son, was recorded at Side between 1255-1285.
A John de Cayleway was a chaplain in Gloucester about 1230.
There had been by this time at least two marriages to Giffard daughters.
John de Kaylleway, the son of the second Elias, and father of John, is referred to at Brimpsfield, probably in relation to the Giffard inheritance, around the same time.
Born about 1230, he held fees of John Giffard, and was involved with Chippenham Forest, Wiltshire, in 1281. He was a witness at two Inquisition Post Mortem at Chippenham, in 1285, and was at Malmesbury in 1286. He died about 1287.
Inquisitions Post Mortem were held to determine whether any property of the King was involved.
Nicholas, although perhaps not closely related to the earlier Nicholas who lived at Mokisbeare/Muxbere in Devon many years before, held land in the Brimpsfield/Groveridge Parish in 1260.
He was though making Civil Pleas in Somerset in 1279.
Thomas and his son Philip Kailleway, of Stregesham, had pasture at Pershore Abbey, with a grant to the Abbot, in 1270. Strensham and Pershore are both near Worcester. Strensham an early family property.
Hugh and Thomas Caylewai had been witnesses in a case in Worcester in 1258.
Thomas and Cassandra de Kaylewaye are referred to in the Somerset Feet of Fines in 1281.
In 1274, the Oxford Sheriff was ordered to deliver Gilbert de Calewy.
The Wiltshire, Devon, Gloucester, families were clearly closely related, and undoubtedly the same family.
While the Gloucestershire people were receiving the greater notice, it is likely that the head of the family, at this time, may have lived in Devon or Wiltshire.
This time of conflict between the King and Barons culminated in the signing of Magna Carta in 1215, and the first Baron’s War of 1215-7, when even Prince Louis of France brought a large army to England against King John.
Individual Barons and Senior Knights held properties in a number of different Counties.
It was common for them to locate family members, or supportive knights, in the manors, to administer and protect their interests, as well of course to provide a source of manpower for their fighting.
Without doubt the de Caillouet family was involved, but whether supporting the King or the barons is not clear. Possibly, the King.
By then family members were located in Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Devon, possibly Dorset and Durham.
King John was succeeded in 1216 by his nine year old son Henry, as King Henry III, with William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, as Regent. Prince Louis of France became a threat, but had his fleet defeated in 1217, and was paid off to stay away in future.
Henry was to reign, as King Henry III, until 1272, sixty years. However he continued to have the problems of his father with the Barons, and in 1264, was actually defeated, and captured by them, under Simon de Montfort.
Montfort was himself defeated and executed the next year.
These were violent times, domestically as well as politically, and one well recorded legal case involved the family of Elias de Kaillewey/Cailloue.
In 1220-1, Elias and Bertha’s daughter Matilda, in collaboration with her aunt's husband Richard Wayfer, and two others, was accused of murdering husband Richard Butler of Acton. The facts were disputed, but her story was not believed. She refused a jury trial, for very good reason. However she had high profile connections such as, uncle Elyas Giffard, two Osbert Giffards, from Gloucester and Kent, Gilbert Giffard, William, Earl Marshall, son of the late Regent of England, and William (Longsword) Earl of Salisbury, together some of the most powerful men in England at the time. Together with her father, their seemingly mild penalty was that she “assume the habit of a nun”. While not known, the physical perpetrators may have been sentenced to “abjure the realme” and carry out penance on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
Some years later, in 1238, Philip de Kaillewai killed Anketill de Dugheltone. Apparently involving the Devon family, the actual circumstances are not known, but at the hearing before 12 jurors at the North Tawton, Devon, Eyre Court, Philip produced letters “close to the king”, to evidently escape penalty.
On a lesser level, Roger Caillewe/Calewe was in trouble for robbery in 1247. In 1260 he had his own Wiltshire house burgled.
Another spelling variation, le Calewe later became the usual spelling in Dorset, and Gloucestershire.
Through the centuries, Devon has been a principal home for the family. At least from the mid-1100s.
Coincidently perhaps about the same time as the Kelly family, presumably also descended fron de Cailly, of Kelly, in Devonshire.
Although there is as yet no known connection there, the Beaumont family held a large number of manors in Devon. Among them Chawleigh, Cheldon, Chumleigh, and Dolton. Locations that would later appear in our family records.
Between 1161 and 1177 Nicholas Chaillwaie witnessed the Dolton and Dowland leases of the Cannonsleigh Priory.
Thought to be another son of the elder Philip, Nicholas is as important in the family as the younger Philip, and may have been his elder brother.
Unless the date of 1161 is incorrect, and he does not appear to have been specifically mentioned before 1168, he could not have been born later than 1140, to be the son of Hawisa.
Could Philip the elder have been married before, or had a bother?
In 1187 Thomas Stafford is mentioned, and in 1200 John, William and Stephen Kailleway/Cailleway witnessed grants in Dolton. The same year, there was a grant to Kailleway alias Stoford of land in Dolton. Probably our first mention of an “alias”.
Stafford Manor, later known as Stafford Barton, near Dolton, as well as Muxbere, and Sutton or Swetton in the Hundred of Halbertone, were held by Ansger de Montacute in Domesday.
Muxbere/Mukelsber/Mokelisbeare, 3km east of Tiverton, in east Devon, was an early family home, at least from the time of Henry II, and was the source of the later Devon family at Stafford Barton.
It remained in the family for at least 300 years. References to the Muxbere manor suggest it may have had considerable significance, and might have been the principal family home, rather than Wiltshire, for some of the early family history. Sadly it has gone today.
In 1238 William Cailleway of Mukelsber was given pasture over the whole moor of Lymor. The first specific reference to the manor. The same year, but as William Cailli, he held land at Axmouth, and at Sampford Peverel. In 1242 he held one knights fee of Mukelebere and Sweteton (Sutton) in Halberton.
William was said to be the son of Philip, the grandson of Nicholas. He was the father of Thomas, and later noted in Heraldic records as the head of the Devon family.
The similarity with the Wiltshire/Gloucester names is however very apparent.
A genealogical listing from Mokelsbeare, Devon, gives Nicholas as the father of Philip, with an inference that he may have settled there first. Philip the father of Thomas.
It could therefore be assumed that Nicholas might have been born around 1140, his son Philip about 1165, grandson William about 1195, Thomas about 1220.
Nicholas could therefore have been a brother, perhaps cousin, of the second Wiltshire/Worcester Philip, cousin of the third 1165 Philip, and was presumably a grandson of William.
Again there is confusion over the two Philips, both born around 1165. One the son of Philip, the other the son of Nicholas.
Sadly, while we have family names from this time, their exact relationships and ages are not clear.
Ten years earlier than the reference to William at Muxbere, in 1228 John Kaillewey and Alice his wife quitclaimed land at Middlecot to the Prior of Pilton. The case was heard in Devon, although Pilton is near Wells, Somerset. They held land at East Buckland, Devon, the same year.
It is not clear whether John would have come from Wiltshire or Devon. The surname spelling is however very similar to that of Elias, and there was definitely a close relationship between those manors at the time. Although living some distance away, he was possibly another son of Elias the elder.
In 1238, Godfrey Caillou/Calliow/Kalliou held land at Exminster and Braunton. While Robert Caillo was at Shirwell. These men may have been of the same family, despite the unusual spellings.
In 1242 William Caillewey was recorded as paying fees in Devon, while at the same time Thomas de Kaillewey paid fees in Wiltshire.
Here the difference between the two names, with the C and K, and use of the “de”, becomes more apparent, Thomas being elsewhere recorded in Wilshire.
It is noted that the prefix “de” was omitted, as seemed to be usual for the Devon names.
The French “de” signifies “of” the place of residence, whereas, when omitted, the name becomes purely the family reference. The inference therefore is that Kaillewey was then the name of the family home, however it may also mean that the Wiltshire branch retained the French derivation, being probably the senior family.
Unlike English, there was no K in the French language, hence a reason for the C/K spelling confusion over the centuries. Something that continued with the name into the 19th Century.
William had land and a mill at Burrington in 1249.
Philip the “younger son” of Thomas, grandson of William, would be the first to hold Stafford Barton.
Although the family was later closely linked with Dorset and Sherborne, there are few references there in the early period. We do not yet know when they first settled there, although it may have been quite early. The senior family could apparently move from one County location to another.
Ralph de Caylloay, possibly the same Ralph de Kelliou recorded at Launceston in 1201, in Berkshire in 1241, and as Sir Ralph de Kal(d)eway was a witness over land grants in Gavele and Sistramstone.
About 1250 however, Radolphus le Calewe was recorded as holding the manor of Dunes Weston, near Stalbridge in Dorset.
As Radolphus and Ralph are the same name, this would seem to be the earlier Sir Ralph.
There are a number of Weston locations recorded around Stalbridge: Dunes Weston, North Weston, Albodes Weston, Allweston, Buckhorn Weston, Calewe Weston, and Stalbridge Weston, and it is not clear where they all were, or how many were the same place, but they were among the lands of the Abbot of Sherborne until the Dissolution under the Tudors.
Dunes Weston was however the seat of the le Calewe family in the time of King Edward I (1272-1307).
The le Calewe family were living there 50 years later, and another family member 250 years after that.
Later family members at Stalbridge Weston could use the name de Weston, then Weston.
In 1288 Walter le Calewe was the Magistrate at an Inquisition in Blandford, Dorset.
The Exchequer Subsidy Rolls of 1327 and 1332 indicate the le Calewe family members in Dorset at that time. John, Thomas, William and Alicia, Walter, Robert, Roger, Adam, Eustace and Peter.
Names that also appear in the Devon and Somerset Subsidies.
Their Dorset properties were at Weston, Stalbridge Weston, Marnhull, Sixpenny Handley, Holt, Wimborne Albatis, Wimborne St Giles, Pentridge, Halstock, Gussage All Saints, Iwerne Minster, Chettle, Colehill, Shapwick, Lytchett Minster, Allweston and Broadmayne.
Most of them placenames that would recur later in the family story.
John le Calewe of Stalbridge Weston and Gussage All Saints, was confirmed as a direct descendant of Elias Cailleway and Bertha Giffard. Either he, or perhaps his father John, who died in 1308, was the first Patron of the 1304 St Giles Church at the Wiltshire manor.
John le Calewe's 1308 will, the earliest we have, refers to his wife Cecily le Bret, his sons John and Robert.
William, with wife Alicia, at Sixpenny Handley in 1327, would be the Patron of the manor after John's death in 1336 - the forebears of the later Wiltshire and Dorset families to follow.
The common Dorset name spelling at that time differs from that seen elsewhere, and the use of the prefix “le” (the) instead of “de” (of), might seem to have indicated another family altogether.
A note accompanying the Exchequer Subsidy Roll of 1332 states that Calwe and Kealwe come from the Old English “calo” meaning “the bald”, but as “e” was then pronounced as “ay”, this is misleading.
However the pedigree of John le Calewe in 1328 clearly stated that he was the direct descendant of Elias de Cailleway and Bertha Giffard. His descendants would again use the “de”.
The “le” was also used in Gloucestershire and the north, between 1270-1340, and it could be that one of the family, perhaps John's father, or grandfather, actually was "bald".
LOCATION LOCATION LOCATION
Between about 1220 and 1250, the family became established at a number of locations throughout the country. We have no knowledge of any property inherited from the early Norman period, or the first William and Philip, apart from Strensham in Worcestershire. Perhaps in Hereford or Gloucester, but the family appear in Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Devon, Dorset, and Durham.
Beginning with the Beaumonts, continued with the Giffards, the sons of the family, Philip, Nicholas, Hugh, Elias, William, Adam, Thomas, and possibly Ralph, were all prominent, and well placed throughout the kingdom.
Two at least were called knights. In addition there were two Johns, one a priest, and Philip and Matilda, all recorded during this time.
The early Beaumont connection with the de Caillys obviously continued to the marriage between Philip and Hawisa. Whether the family held Beaumont property before Philip's marriage and early death, is uncertain, apart from Worcestershire.
The 1165 Wiltshire property however, while it may have been a Beaumont/Gloucester marriage settlement, had been Giffard. And some 25 years later, Elias would marry Bertha Giffard.
Despite the paucity of information available today, it is clear that the family had a position of importance. Unfortunately the spasmodic reports cannot give an accurate picture of individual family members and their connections. However, while we will never know all the people at the time, it appears that Elias, Adam and Matilda, Nicholas, perhaps Thomas, Ralph and John, were the children of the elder Elias, while Thomas, and Philip and the other John, may have related to William in Devon.
THE FRENCH CONNECTION
We may never know the exact connection/relationship between the French village of Caillouet and the people who crossed to England. While available information from France begins about the 11th Century, it is tantalisingly incomplete. And as in England the spellings varied.
The Lords of Vaux sur Eure however were the Lords and Patrons of the Parish of Caillouet for more than four centuries, perhaps from the mid 1000s until the mid 1400s.
Vaux sur Eure is only 5km to the north east of Caillouet, much closer than Cailly sur Eure.
Raduifus de Calloet was referred to, as involved with a donation to the Monastery of Saint-Pere de Chartres, while, in a charter of 1157, a Chapel of Calloel, attached to the Church of Chaument en Vexin, was mentioned.
The fiefdom of Caillouet, a short distance from Brotonne, was held at one time by Alexander de Caillouet, huntsman of Robert II, Count of Meulan. Robert was the son of Waleran de Beaumont, and born c 1142.
The important position of his huntsman would probably usually be held by a kinsman.
Alexander born about 1140-1150 could have been the son or cousin of the Philip de Chailewai who married Hawisa de Beaumont, the association thereby confirming the link with the Beaumont family. Presumably living in France, he could also be the Alexandri de Cailluel who was recorded in Gloucestershire in 1214.
In the commune of Bu nearby, there existed, in 1232, a vine named “vinca de Cailloel”, but there was no mention of a pear. In the list of tithes of Croisi in 1289, Caillouet was referred to as Caillouelum and Caillouetum, presumably Latin versions of the name.
While there are no specific dates for Raduifus, men with matching names to him and Alexander, and no obvious connection with other family members, appeared in Dorset and Durham in the early 1200s.
One or both may possibly have come over from Caillouet later than the first members of the family.
COATS OF ARMS
From the time of the Conquest it was usual for knights to carry coloured symbols on their tunics and shields as a badge of importance, and means of identification. These symbols developed into "coats of arms" for the knightly families. Granted by the King, they formed the beginning of heraldry, and would be passed from generation to generation.
French coats of arms from Normandy, for Caillouey and Calloue, had three eagles displayed, but there is no sign of the pears that were to become so visually part of those recognised today.
The eagles are not a specifically Norman, Plantagenet or French device, and actually seem to suggest association with the Holy Roman Empire, perhaps back to Charlemagne, and the Carolingians who held the area before the arrival of the Vikings.
This could mean that Norman relatives in France, even possibly Philip, had served the Holy Roman Empire in some, perhaps mercenary, manner, as had many of the knights who accompanied William to England a century earlier.
Today we acknowledge the crossed grosing irons with four pears, and a combed and wattled cock crest, or the tiger passant in Devon, seen in a number of locations in West Country churches and homes, as the family coat of arms. The pears relate to a popular "family"pear from the 1200s. But there is no obvious family connection with stained glass trade until much later, apart from, possibly, family involvement at the burning of Sherborne Abbey in 1436. There may be a connection with the extension of arms being made available to guilds from 1427.
Used by the senior family from at least the early 1500s, until the mid 1700s, there is no evidence yet however that they were a great deal earlier than the mid 1400s. Perhaps dating from the knighthood of Sir William Caleway with the Order of the Bath in 1501.
There may have been earlier family arms. Those borne by some “perimeter” Kellaway/Callaway families, of a chevron with three "leopards" faces, appear older.
According to Burke, the most reliable reference authority, these arms relate to Callow, Caylowe, Kaloway, Kelley, and Weston families in Dorset, Devon, and Surrey, .
The Callow arms from Norfolk have a ducal coropnet, perhaps a reference to Baron Cailly.
Some Dorset Westons were originally members of the le Calewe family from Stalbridge Weston in Dorset.
The Colleton Devon Westons have the same combed and wattled cock crest on their chevron arms, as have the Dorset Kellawayes and Hampshire Kelloways over their pears. Whereas the Devon Kellaways have a tiger passant.
The Devon Stowfords have bulls faces instead of the leopards faces, with the chevron.
The Dorset Chamberlains have leopards faces, without the chevron.
Bulls heads were first seen on arms in 1219. The use of "leopards" however for what are in reality lions, is said to date from the gift of three leopards as a "living shield", from German Emperor Frederick II to King Henry III in 1223.
The Weston family from Surrey were said to descend from Adam de Weston in the time of King John.
The leopards faces arms could therefore date from that time. There was an Adam de Cailli recorded about then, and it is quite possible they were the same man.
The Lords of Vaux sur Eure in France were the Lords and Patrons of the Norman Parish of Caillouet for four centuries from the mid 1000s.
It is of interest that the armorial of the Commune of Vaux sur Eure comprised a chevron between three cinqfoils. Could this suggest another origin for the chevron arms?
In the arms of other perimeter families with a chevron, there are further variations from the leopard faces, such as mullets, bucks, billets, roses, talbots and holly leaves.
The Killiowes of Dale in Cornwall, had the chevron with two cinqfoils and a mullet. From Lansallos in Cornwall, two roses and a mullet.
The Devon Kellys have the billets, while the Devon Kelleys have leopards faces.
Both of these pairs of families, undoubtedly related at an early time, indicate the way the arms were varied to identify their own branch of the family.
Old heraldic records state that the Kaloway arms were three boars heads over a chevron, the same as those borne by the Weston family, although Burke later says they were leopard's faces. Much later some Weston arms included two quarterings of an eagle displayed.
The Leicester Giffards had a chevron with roses. The Giffard family had property in many of the English counties. Whether the Giffards and Beaumonts became closely related or not, Leicester could suggest the location of de Caillouet properties relative to those families that were acquired in the mid 1100s.
Lord Giffard of Brimpsfield, a family location, had three lions/leopards. Possibly suggesting a connection.
The only known early family arms are those of Baron Thomas de Cailly in 1311, but they were quite dissimilar with four benedicts/cotices. Other Cayley arms were different again, indicating perhaps that the separation of the families was early.
Norfolk Cayley/Caley arms have the chequy. The same device used by the Vaux familes of Cumberland and Northampton, decended from the three sons of the Lord of Vaux in Normandy. Perhaps an indication the early family connection
John, the son of John le Calewe of Dunes Weston, had used a Lion Rampant seal on documents in 1296. Such a device had some regal connotations, and was seen also on the shield of Richard de Kellawe, Bishop of Durham from 1311-1316, although these may only be coincidences.
Later Kellaway/Callaway families clearly took the pears and grosing irons of the Rockbourne knights.
But did those other "perimeter" families retain versions of earlier arms?
The use of the chevron is very old, but not so common that many of the families have shared it.
The Vaux overlords of Caillouet in France, the Leicester branch of the Giffard family with the chevron, and so many of the "perimeter" families with the leopards faces, must indicate close association, if not direct family relationship.
Leopards faces were also relatively rare. Family members however were very involved with the wool trade, some later known as wealthy “merchants of the staple”.
It is interesting to see that the Company of Weavers, of London, and of Edinburgh, both had a chevron with leopards faces, but each was holding a shuttle in its mouth.
The Stratford-upon-Avon Town COA also has the chevron and leopards faces, in their own colours.
Whatever the background to the arms, the senior families were later to present a new image.
A distinct new coat of arms. Of crossed glaziers grosing irons and four pears.
Although from a “knightly” family, there has been no actual reference to William, Roger, Nicholas, Philip, Elias, or any later member of the family, being involved with the Crusades.
The connection with the Beaumonts and Plantagenets does pose the question, as from both England and France, they were at the first three Crusades, of 1099, 1148 and 1189. Particularly Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan, Earl of Worcester, and it is possible Philip de Caillouet was with him at the second Crusade. The survival rate from the Crusades was not good.
Similarly there is no mention of family presence at the invasion of Ireland in 1169.
They did however later fight for their King. In 1269 William de Kayleweyt was given one years "protection" by King Henry III. Presumably for military services, it was possibly against the Welsh, but more likely the Scots in the North.
Similarly John Caylwy, probably John le Calewe, in 1321 received protection from King Edward II.
William de Kellowe, presumably the above William, was a witness to a property quitclaim in 1279-80.
He appears again at Durham, and Gloucester.
The Devonshire branch of the family, as acknowledged today, descended from the old Devon family of the 1100s, apparently lived originally at Mokisbeare. Later at Stafford Manor, Dolton, (later known as Stafford Barton), 40km north west of Exeter, 20km south of Barnstaple, from about 1270. It had been held by the Beaumonts at Domesday.
Their pedigree, which is quite well detailed, is taken back to William Kalleway of Mokisbeare in Devon, who, by calculation, could have been born about 1195, and Nicholas before him.
Philip, the younger son of Thomas, and grandson of William, was said to be the first occupant of Stafford Barton. These facts match the Stowford and Mokelisbeare pedigrees, and tie with the Wiltshire family.
Although still recognised as Kaillewe/Caylewe, the family were known as de Stowford (the place), Stoford, and, by 1600, Stafford. Lesser branches of this family retained the original family name, in local form, and presumably most, if not all, of the West Devon and Cornish people would relate to the manors of Stowford and Stafford Barton.
Further west, today the more common spelling appears to be Callaway, rather than the Kellaway of Dorset, and much of Devon.
Whether there was any connection between the Devon manor and the Dorset village of the same name where later members of the family lived, or yet another Stowford in Wiltshire, is not known, however the name Stowford has a geographical base, and there are other Stowfords and Stofords.
In Wiltshire, it is also close to where there were later other families.
The family has been found in a number of Devon locations, including St Giles in the Wood, Roborough, Broadwoodkelly, Idlesleigh, Whitsleigh, Hatherleigh, Chagford, Eggesford, Great Torrington, Stowford, Dowland, Dolton and Stafford Barton.
Cheldon, Chawleigh, and Chumleigh, although probably very early family properties, did not register in family importance until the arrival there of the senior Wiltshire family in the 1390s.
Later in eastern Devon, they were in Cullompton, Uffculme, Otterton and Ottery St Mary.
In 1242 William Calleway held Sweteton/Sutton. In 1285 it was held by John Cayllewey, presumably John le Calewe, of Gloucestershire and Dorset.
The Devon family later at least used the same arms as the Dorset family and the Rockbourne knights, with a different crest, but confirming the close family connection that was maintained over the centuries.
A variation however is with the Stowford of Stowford family, who evidently used a modification of the chevron and leopards faces, with bull's faces instead of leopards.
It is interesting that the chapel at St Giles in the Wood, Devon, was built in 1309, just 5 years after St Giles at Kellaways Wiltshire, perhaps also indicating the influence of the future Bishop Richard de Kellawe of Durham.
BISHOP OF DURHAM
In the north of England, the powerful Prince Bishops of Durham were appointed by the King as Counts Palatine, and maintained a standing army to defend the Scottish border.
Richard de Kellawe was Bishop of Durham from 1311-1316, before dying that year at his manor of Middleham. He had been a monk at St Cuthberts Durham, and was third Prior of the Cathedral by 1300.
He was elected Bishop of Durham, after the Royal assent was given, and the election confirmed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, on 20 May 1311.
As Bishop, he was granted the rights to all the corn growing in the Bishop’s desmesne, provided he met the expenses of the late Bishop Bek. Within a year however he was required to provide 600 quarters of wheat, 200 great animals, 500 wethers, 200 swine, 1000 quarters of oats, hay to the value of £100, and litter to the value of 100s, with all speed to the King.
King Edward II was then staying in the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. An expensive honour.
Richard was said to be the son of a prominent Durham family, and his parents were Thomas and Agnes, both of whom were dead by 1312. It is still not clear what the family connection was. One possibility is the Thomas listed in Wiltshire in 1242. Thomas could have been relatively young then, gone north, and been the father, or grandfather, of Richard, with siblings William and Patrick.
William was mentioned in the register of Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham from 1283-1311, in 1286 and 1292, and may have been the earlier William recorded in 1269 and 1279 at Gloucester. Patrick became the senior knight in Durham.
Richard was Bishop at the time of the English defeat at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, and would have been very involved with the huge settlement paid to the Scots under Robert the Bruce, to protect Durham. His family originally may have gone north at the request of the King to protect the border, and they may have been present at the earlier defeat of the Scots by Edward I and his longbowmen, at Falkirk in 1298.
The English longbow was to become the most potent weapon of the Middle Ages, but was not employed to any purpose by Edward II at Bannockburn. Richard’s brother Patrick commanded the troops of the Bishop at the time. Family members could have died there.
In 1311 Bishop Richard had granted the moor, or waste, of Haberhouse to Patrick. Richard the son of Patrick, in 1313, was involved with a new building at Sutorpeth. Other members of the family in Durham at the time were Magistro/clerk Petro, and Aimeric; both being recorded in Court hearings in 1300.
Land formerly held by Thomas le Callue, possibly the later Baron Thomas de Cailly, is mentioned elsewhere in 1301.
Alexander de Kellawe had made a grant to Sherborne Hospital Durham about 1260. Henry, his son, is referred to in 1283, in connection with the Church of St Mary in the South Bailey of Durham, together with Alexander’s widow Mermedonia, and Nicholas.
Later he was presumably involved with St Giles Church, in Durham.
It seems likely that, as Alexander could have been born somewhere about 1220, he was the brother of Thomas, and perhaps the first family member in Durham.
It is also possible that Alexander and Thomas were the sons of an earlier settler, perhaps a Thomas, as Durham Cathedral dates from 1093, and the town had been of strategic importance for many years.
There had also been an Alexander de Caillouet in France in the late 1100s.
In 1283, Emericus/Aimeric de Kellaw, and Joan his wife, had had their corn at Uplythum and Mersk mowed and carried away, without their permission.
Peter was Vicar of Northallerton from 1302-1311, Rector of Sedgefield, and died in 1313. He was presumably another brother or cousin of Richard.
Margery, the daughter of Roger de Kellaw, wife of John de Herdwyk, is mentioned in 1338. In 1333, the same year that the English longbowmen, this time under Edward III, again defeated the Scots, William de Kellawe represented Durham at Oxford University. Ten years later in 1343, Magistrate William de Kellawe, and his son William, held the South Bailey of Durham town.
With the repetition of family names at the time, these Williams would probably be the descendants of the earlier William. Also in 1343, Richard de Kellaw died, leaving land in Kellaw to his wife Agnes and 11 year old son William. It seems that this village/manor, presumably present day Kelloe, some 10km from Durham, may have been established during the time of Bishop Richard, possibly by the earlier William, perhaps earlier.
John de Kellawe and his son Adam of Seton, presumably Seaton 15km north east of Durham, were referred to in 1345.
While the English army was annihilating the French at Crecy in 1346, Scottish King David II took the opportunity to invade England. He was defeated, and captured for ransom, near Durham.
In 1347, John, the son of the earlier Henry de Kellawe, and Eliza his sister, were living somewhere in the south wall of Durham Town.
In 1348 Elias Kellawe was rector of St Nicholas Durham. Thomas was Vicar of Berwick in 1358, 1360, and Vicar of Heighington in 1380, 1390. He is said to have died in 1394.
Walter de Kellawe was a Carmelite Friar in Yorkshire about 1348.
In the remarkable Survey of Northumberland carried out by Thomas Hatfield, Bishop of Durham (1345-81) between 1377 and 1380, William Kellawe held the manor of Harebarowes in Cestria Ward. William also had properties at Southbedburn, Cornforth and Plausworth. Perhaps as William de Kyowe at Whetley in Chester WardQuykham.
Patrick was in nearby Blakburne, and at Langchestre.
William's son Robert de Kellawae de Lomley had property in the villages of Pyktre, Grencroft,and Knycheley.
Peter de Kellawe had the manor of Aldpark. Elianora the widow of Richard at Framwelgate.
There were no other recognisable family names, although John Galway, and particularly William Galowe at Quykham, indicate the “phonetic” similarity between names with K, C, and G, most obvious in Ireland. The name was almost always spelt Kellawe in the Survey, indicating that dropping the “e” was of later origin.
Before 1417, Joanne, the daughter and heiress of William, married John Fossour, suggesting that William would have been born about 1350. Joanna (de Kellaw) was aged about 80 when she died about 1457.
William Kellowe had a pension from the Archbishop of York in 1398. In 1408 John Kellaw was referred to as the father of John and Alice. The younger John died in infancy in 1410. Alice Kellaw, the wife of Robert Lambton, died in 1439.
The place Callowes appears in records in 1330, and the name Callow or Kellow is more common in the North. There is some confusion with spellings, as elsewhere, however the spelling/pronunciation of Kellawe is seemingly clear, despite the curious common corruption to Kellaw, and matches the southern family. The presence of an Elias and an Adam could indicate a family connection with Gloucestershire, while the Callow arms from Norfolk, with the leopards faces, also have a ducal coronet, perhaps indicating relationship to Lord Thomas de Cailly.
The Parish of Kellaways in Wiltshire was also known as Calloes as recently as the early 1800s.
Considering the number of family names at Durham about the time of Bishop Richard, there is seemingly little reference to the family later. However, apart from problems with the Scots, perhaps due to the influence of Richard, a large number were Churchmen.
With presumably no descendants.
WILTSHIRE & GLOUCESTERSHIRE
In the Wiltshire Inquisitions Post Mortem at this time, John Kayleway was a witness in two legal cases in Chippenham in 1285. He was at Malmesbury the next year, and was referred to as the heir to the Giffard property of Brimpsfield, Gloucestershire. Presumably the elder John le Calewe of Dorset and Wil;tshire
William le Kalewe was at Gloucester in 1296, and again as William Calewe in 1300, presumably the same man, but further south.
In Gloucester, the heirs of Ralph Caluet were recorded as holding one knights fee in Eston; suggesting descendants of the earlier Ralph de Kaleway of Dorset.
In 1284 Simon Caley/Caleway sold the manor of Side to his kinsman Sir John Giffard, as a bride price. However Robert de Kailly/Kailleway, probably the son of Simon, still held the manor in 1303. Adam of Kellaways was said to have granted the manor to the Giffards about 1315. A Robert had been referred to as a servant at Prestbury about 1284, but may have been another man.
Gerard and Roald Calewais were directed to the Exchequer in 1297. The names however seem somehow out of the family context, and may have been new arrivals from Europe. There was apparently a connection in the Lowlands, perhaps involving the wool trade or lacemaking. Very early.
The de Caluwe/Kaluwe family of Bruges had arms which also included the chevron.
John Keloway of Mokisbeare was referred to about 1310 as the son of Thomas, the father of John.
At the same time, John de Caillewe was involved with Pynchencumbe/Pitchcombe.
Some years later, in 1327, John le Callewe (ie “the Bald”), presumably the Dorset John, claimed land in Pichenecumbe. Another reference to the Old English definition suggesting that he, or more likely a forebear, may have been bald.
In 1312 Walter le Calewe is referred to as once holding the Coberley land. Presumably the Dorset Magistrate.
Between 1315 and 1318 the Great Famine affected large areas of Western Europe.
This sort of disaster was always near.
In 1318 Henry and Sarah Cailleway sought to recover land in Gloucestershire.
Edward II continued his conflict with the Barons, defeating them in 1322, and having the Earl of Lancaster executed. Worse however was to come for Edward.
In 1327, the Gloucestershire Subsidy Roll included Pho le Calewe in Warda Australis, Villa Gloucester, the south ward of Gloucester Town, and Matheo le Calewe in Goderynstone, in the Hundred of Clyve. Mathew, possibly the son of the William of 1296, mentioned in Gloucester and elsewhere, was one of the wealthiest in his village, Philip one of the poorer in Gloucester Town.
The use there of the le Calewe name suggests that this was either the family of John le Calewe, or being aware of the major le Calewe family, the name was then spelt that way by the Subsidy clerks.
In the Wiltshire Lay Subsidy Roll of 1332, John Calewaei, presumably John le Calewe, was recorded at Tytherton/Tudryntone. Also as John Kywele at Martin/Mertone, with William Calewe and Roger Kywele. Hugh Calays/Calys was at Chippenham and Devizes. While Walter Kyle was at Alvediston.
These men evidently had property in a number of Counties. With a number of spellings.
MORE MURDER AND MAYHEM
In 1278, Robert le Calewe lost part of his left ear, when accidentally “cut off” by Baldwin de Roseye, the parson of the Church of Rokelund, near Norwich.
Baldwin was evidently a rather aggressive man of the cloth.
In 1296, John de Wardwyk, of Cistere, near York, was to be pardoned for killing Adam de Calewe. While in 1309, John the son of John de Merihille was pardoned for killing Michael the son of Roger le Calewe, of Barewe, because he killed him “in a fit of madness, without premeditation”!
Family numbers must have been reducing, even before the Scots arrived.
About this time, the Court garden of King Edward I, who reigned from 1272-1306, contained, Cailleway, or Caillouet, pear trees. They were earlier, in 1262, referred to as Cailhou/Caylowel and, about 1284, as Kaylewell pears. The circumstances of the trees are not known, and why they were of special note, but with the family evidently in some favour with the Royal Court at that time, it seems a possible origin for the family coat of arms, although there is no evidence of use at that time.
Wiltshire, Devon, Dorset, or Gloucesterhire, may have provided fertile areas for growing pears, possibly from the time of the family’s first arrival. The trees would presumably have come from Normandy, as the French vine of 1232 was also spelt Cailloel.
ST GILES CHURCH
In 1304 St Giles Church was founded beside the family manor, as the Parish of Cayllewey, Wiltshire.
The first patron was Johannes de Kayleway. Also known as John le Calewe, John would have been the son of John, the great grandson of the first Elias, possibly the nephew of William and Richard. It is very conceivable therefore that Prior Richard of Durham would encourage the establishment of a church at the manor. Apart from the likely connection with the Durham family, Wiltshire was seemingly reinforced as being a principal family home.
St Giles was the Patron Saint of beggars and cripples, and was very popular in mediaeval England, some 150 churches to him being built, one in Durham Town. Others are seen around the West Country, and in family properties, such as St Giles in the Wood in Devon, built in 1309.
Wimborne St Giles in Dorset was the home of Roger le Calewe in 1332. The church there may have related to Prior/Bishop Richard de Kellawe of Durham, however was much older.
Elyas de Kaillewai and Walter Calewei were involved with a Tytherton land transfer in 1303. Walter, presumably the Blandford Magistrate, held land in Chippenham Hundred, and Elyas was a witness, the same year. This Elyas must have been the third, at least, with the name. Also in 1303 John de Callewey was recorded as holding Sutton in Devon.
In 1346 John de Chaylleway was mentioned, with respect to an inheritance there. These Johns were presumably grandfather and grandson, as the elder John died in 1308, his son in 1336.
In 1319 John Kaylewey/Caylwy was a witness in a number of cases at Laycock, Wiltshire. He received one years protection in 1321 for going to Ireland in the service of King Edward II, possibly to help put down the rebellion instigated by the brother of Robert the Bruce, seven years after Bannockburn.
Apart from the missing "de”, he is presumed to be John le Calewe. Although John had however by then become a common name in the family.
John Kayllewey and his wife Ismania were in 1325 confirmed as holding property in Mokelisbeare and Chedilton (presumably Cheldon) Devon. There was also reference to relatives Thomas and Nichola. They were presumably the John and Thomas le Calewe recorded as holding property at Stalbridge Weston, Marnhull and Gussage All Saints in Dorset in 1327 and 1332. There was also a Thomas at Stafford Barton in Devon about the same time.
The manor at Cheldon was to reappear 70 years later.
In 1329 John de Caillewe was involved with the lands formerly belonging to his uncle Walter le Bret. There is a strong possibility that he was Magistrate Walter le Calewe of Wimborne Albatis, who appears to have died between 1327 and 1332. John's mother was Cecily le Bret, suggesting that Walter may have also, by association, used the le Calewe name. Some of our family members today may have le Bret DNA.
THE 1308 WILL
John le Calewe died in 1308. In his will, the first found, he left as his executors, his wife nee Cicely le Bret, sons John and Robert. Robert appears to have been living at Halstock Dorset in 1327, but had died by 1332. John was later to be involved with the Giffard inheritance.
Among specific requests, John senior was to be buried in the churchyard of the Church of the Blessed Mary at Stapelbryge (Stalbridge), Dorset, with the sum of 20s allowed for his tomb. Other bequests, usually 12d (1s), included the Church at Maleborue Port (either Malborough near the coast in south Devon, or more likely Milborne Port, 6km from Stalbridge). Proven before the Lord Archdeacon of Dorset, it seems probable he was living at Dunes Weston, 1km from Stalbridge. Dunes Weston had been described as the seat of the le Calewe family in the time of Edward I (1272-1307).
Although John became a very common name, he so closely matches the Wiltshire and Mokesbeare Johns of the time, that they were almost certainly the same man. It appears therefore that Sir Ralph of 1250 was related, was possibly an uncle, and that family members may have been living in Dorset from the late 1100s, as well as at Brimpsfield, Gloucestershire.
Born perhaps about 1260, John would have been the founder of St Giles Church in Wiltshire, and either he, or his elder son John would have been the first patron.
20 years later his son would be involved with the Giffard inheritance.
If John lived in Wiltshire after 1308, as Johannes de Cayllewey, that could explain the use of the name Weston by family members who remained in Dorset, at Dunes Weston or Stalbridge Weston.
THE GIFFARD INHERITANCE
The years between 1326-30 were those of turmoil for the English Royal Family. Edward II was regarded as weak, and over influenced by his “favourites”, initially Piers Gaveston, later the Despensers.
The Barons were more unhappy than previously. After Queen Isabella returned from a nuptial planning visit to France with their 16 year old son Edward, and her lover Roger Mortimer, King Edward was deposed for his son, and the Despensers hanged.
King Edward was soon imprisoned and murdered on the orders of Mortimer.
Young King Edward III however very soon had Mortimer hanged, and his mother imprisoned, for life.
These years would have a major influence on the de Caillouet family.
John Giffard was hung, drawn and quartered for treason in 1327. In 1328 John le Calewe was declared to be the heir of his cousin, on the basis of Elias’s marriage to Bertha Giffard over 125 years before, through his great grandfather Elias, grandfather Elias, and father John.
The extent of the inheritance would have been considerable if it included all the Giffard property referred to in an earlier Inquisition Post Mortem of 1299. Sadly however, within a short time the properties were handed to Sir John Mautravers, who had actually been one of the murderers of King Edward II in 1327. There seems to have been some confusion over the situation, as the properties were passed to and fro, before finally finishing with Mautravers in 1351.
It is however thought that John may have only been a convenience to reward Mautravers.
In the Inquisition Post Mortem of 1327 for the executed John Giffard, John de Keileway was referred to as his heir and kinsman, while Adam de Cayly/Kaylly was also referred to, with regard to Brimpsfield.
John de Kaylli, presumably the same John, is also mentioned at Brimpsfield.
John has his name spelt a number of different ways, from Calew to Kailleway, over the next two years, with regard to Giffard property and manors, in Gloucestershire, at Brimpsfield, Side, Badgworth, Stonehouse, Kings Stanley and Rockhampton. By 1330 however, the properties, including Broughton manor in Wiltshire, were being given to Mautravers.
John was also referred to with and without the “de” prefix in the same document, and with a large variety of totally different spellings overall. All the references to John elsewhere at this time were therefore probably the same man, indicating that he had extensive property in the south, including Devon and Somerset.
He, or his family, however may not have been living at the Wiltshire manor, but could have been at Stalbridge Weston, Mokelisbeare or even Chedilton, at that time.
An Adam was recorded at Chettle Dorset in 1327.
A John and his son Adam had property near Durham in 1345, but whether these two would be the Dorset/Wiltshire family is not clear.
Edmundus Calewey held land near Malmesbury, 15 km from Tytherton/Kellaways Wiltshire in 1330.
In 1347, Roger and Edmund Cayleway acquired property near Malmesbury, for Margaret Cayleway. Margaret could have been their mother, or younger sister. The latter seems possible in view of later events at the Wiltshire family manor.
In 1331, John le Calewe/Kaylleway was a witness at an Inquisition Post Mortem regarding the manors of Eblesbourne and Great Scherston in Wiltshire. The next year, as John Cailleway/Calewai/Kayleway, he paid the Lay Subsidy Tax on Mokebere in the Hundred of Halbertone, and the properties of Tytherton and Sopworth in Wiltshire, while, as John Kayllewey, he was involved, possibly as a tenant, with the Manor of Great Scherston in Wiltshire.
During 1334-5 John de Calwe was in Dorchester, Dorset, and was recorded as holding land in Chippenham. When he died on 10 September 1336, he was described as being “late of Brimpsfield”, and also left vacant the position of Verderer for Chippenham. It is fairly clear therefore that, unless there was another John at Mokelsbeare, the Mokelsbeare, Wiltshire and Gloucestershire properties were all held by him at this time. John Keloway of Mockisbeare was said, at the time, to be the son of John, the father of John - family descents that match Mockisbeare with Wiltshire. He was obviously a man of some importance, and his death could have weakened the family case to hold the Giffard estates.
His widow married Thomas Cheyny.
There is little direct reference to the family in Gloucestershire after this time, although they may have become “confused” with the Caley or Callow families. Robert de Kailli, knight, was referred to later with regard to a mill and property at Polesworth, near Birmingham, Warwickshire, in 1398.
While not including a major family home, the County of Somerset also figured in family history.
Thomas and Cassandra de Kaylewaye were there in 1281.
In 1327 John de Cayllewey paid tax for property at Kingstone Somerset. About 1335 he was involved in a lawsuit over cattle in his hayfield.
It seems almost certain that the Wiltshire, Mokebere and Somerset Johns were the same man.
Also paying tax in Somerset in 1327, were Adam Calwe at Thorlokstone (Thurloxton), Richard Calwe at Southtrendle, Walter Calwe at Legbe Episcopal, and Gilbert Calwe at Otreferde (Otterford). Walter was probably the earlier Magistrate at Blandford Dorset. Adam the Adam at Chettle in Dorset in 1332. The difference in Somerset spelling from that of John is quite noticeable and, much later, could have been the origin of the present-day Calway family.
At Forde (Ford Street) near Welytone (Wellington), William de Calweheigh, the son of Richard was fined 3d (threepence) in 1332. In 1342, and again in 1343 he was fined some further 3ds at Welyngtone. By 1362 the amount was up to 18d for another misdemeanour, and in 1369 12d. In 1390 there was reference to a messuage and half a virgate of “ancient” land, which William Calewehey forfeited, suggesting that there may have been two Williams involved in the mischief.
The family also seems to have been in Wellington quite early.
The first William was given the prefix “de”, suggesting relationship to the William in Wiltshire and Mokesbeare. If not the same man, however his father was named Richard.
Caleweyescrois (Calways Cross), near Wellington, was referred to in 1373. “Calways Farm”, exists today, 1km south of Wellington.
Stephen and Matilda Calwe held 5½ acres of land near Taunton Somerset in 1377.
Richard the son of Richard de Calewehey was fined 3d in 1382, while in 1390 reference was made to property forfeited by William Calewehey.
In 1414 Henry and John Caleway received recompense for damage done by John atte Mull's cattle.
In 1421 John Calehey finally received damages of 39s 11d, for being beaten, and having two of his left side ribs broken, by John Waterman 13 years previously!
John seems to have been a continuing victim, as about the same time, he and his wife Edith, were assaulted by Thomas Paynton and John Tannere. Who were fined 6d each.
WILLIAM AND ELEANOR
John le Calewe died in 1336, and the next patron of St Giles Church, from 1336 to 1376, was William de Cayleway. He and his wife Alice are referred to in the 1345 Wiltshire Feet of Fines, as holding manors in Wiltshire. Previously in 1327, William and Alice le Calewe were recorded as holding land at Sixpenny Handley in Dorset. Not mentioned there in 1332, they may have already moved to the Wiltshire manor.
In the list of Patrons in Wiltshire, the name was changed to Caillewey from 1348, so there mighthave been two Williams, but it was almost certainly the same man, even for 40 years. He is presumed to be the son of John, and could have been quite elderly when he died in 1376. Alternatively, he may have been the grandson of the previous John.
In 1368 at an Inquisition Post Mortem in Exeter, William Cayle/Caille/Keil/Keyle, the son of John was said to have land in Devon and Somerset. John Calaway was at an IPM in Wiltshire in 1371.
During this time, the long 50 year reign of King Edward III, Eleanor Kelwaye married Ralph de Horsey of Sherborne. It is not clear what significance this Dorset wedding may have had, or to which family Eleanor belonged. Born about 1320, she is thought to have been the daughter of William. In 1353 she married John Fitzpaine, which may indicate a later family link with the village of Cheriton Fitzpaine.
Thomas de Kayleway was referred to in Wiltshire about 1350, while John Calewe was a witness at the IPM for Sir Roger Bavent in 1352.
In 1359 Hugh de Calewe was a witness in Hereford.
Members of the Devon family could also be known as de Stowford, although whether they were from Stafford Manor, or Stowford in Devon is not clear. Some definitely were, by Pedigree, from the Stafford Barton family. It is possible they were differentiating themselves from the main Wiltshire family or, as in Dorset at Stalbridge Weston, recognising their place of abode. Perhaps both.
Members of the principal family there however did gradually change their name to Stowford, then Stafford.
William de Stowford was recorded as a clerk in 1317-8.
Robert de Stowford was a witness at Comptone Chaumberlayn, Wiltshire in 1331 and 1333. He may though have been from Stowford in Wiltshire. Chamberlayn would appear as a familyalias later.
Thomas de Stowford appears to have held the manor of Great Torrington, Devon, in 1339, while John was a Justice between 1345 and 1354. John had secured a messuage and tenements in Brightly and Estacot in Chittlehampton, north Devon, in 1338, from a hearing in York, some distance away.
He had also secured, with Nicholas Poynte of Curymadlet, the manors of Wollecombe Tracey in Morteloe, Stowford in West Down, Bremelrigge in South Moulton and Wydeyate, also property in Northcote in Bittadon, Froggemere, Crakewaye and Barnstaple, in 1344.
Again the locality name Stowford appears, and this could have been another origin for the family name. While some centuries later family members became Woolacombe.
In 1329 Henry de Stoforde was granted a licence for an Oratory at Stafford Manor.
The Chapel was referred to again later in 1415, and in 1424, when Thomas Stofford was granted the last licence.
In the 1332 Devon Lay Subsidy lists, it is not clear whether those recorded were the same as those in Dorset, but it is probable, particularly regarding John le Calewe.
John Cailleway is recorded as owning property at Muxbere, presumably the oldest and most important of the Devon manors. John Calwe/Kealwe at Coffinswell, Dunkeswell, and Plympton. William Calwe/Kealwe at St Mary Church and Bideford. And Richard Calwe at Meavy, and Sherford.
Henry de Stouford and Thomas de Stouford both had properties in Iddlecott. Henry the larger, which possibly related to Stafford Manor. Walter Stouford, although not perhaps the Dorset Magistrate, the most valuable land at Sutton Prior. Roger de Stouford had a property at Langtree. William de Stouford/Stoford properties at Langtree, Littleham (2), and Coliton. Nicholas and John Stoford also had properties at Coliton. Although which Coliton in Devon is not clear.
Richard de Stoford at Hagginton. Edmund and Robert de Stoforde at Colaton Ralegh.
The similarities of these names to the Calwes above suggests they also may have been the same, while there was an early Edmund mentioned in Dorset.
One or two of these men may only be of Devon, but the majority do appear to match names of those in Dorset and Somerset.
A number of Devon family placenames also are not included here, and strangely perhaps there is no Thomas or Philip, the most popular Devon family names.
MERCHANTS AND SHIPPERS
By 1300, the family, or members of it, were merchants and shippers. They probably dealt in tin, or tin mining in Cornwall and Devon.
In 1305 Richard Calewe/Cayleway had a ship docked. He had land in Gloucester the next year. The first reference to actual seafaring activities by the family. In 1321 Richard Calewe, of Sidmouth, presumably the same man, or his son, was referred to as a Master, presumably a ship's master.
Apart from tin, wool was becoming England’s principal export, while wine dominated the imports.
Thomas Chaillewey was a “shipper of wine and iron” in 1316.
In 1390 Roger Caleway was issuing overseas licences. He was a juror in Bodmin in 1391, and in 1393 he was a "collector", and a tin merchant.
That year, with a number of Cornish merchants, he was pardoned for carrying out some illicit tin exporting.
In 1340, along with a number of other notabilities, including two knights, Richard Calewe of Bowedon was fined for some mischief. Bowedon could have been Bowden, near Dartmouth, Devon.
The same year, in the northeast, Simon Calawe of Holbech and over 40 others, including Churchmen, carried away a baleyn fish (whale) worth £200, and assaulted the servants of the Countess of Lincoln.
In Wiltshire in 1343, Roger Caleweye, along with a large number of others, this time including ladies and churchmen, was indicted of “divers felonies and misdoings”.
The Hundred Years War with France began in 1337.
Three years later, in 1340, when the French were preparing to invade Scotland, the English fleet defeated the combined French and Genoese fleet off Sluys, Flanders.
In 1346, at the Battle of Crecy, the Anglo/Welsh longbowmen completely destroyed the French army, and with it most of the French nobility.
After the loss of most of the French territory under previous Kings, Edward III was now able, with considerable justification, to actually claim the throne of France.
Ten years later, in 1356, Edward’s son, the Black Prince, defeated the French again, at Poitiers, and this time took the French King prisoner for ransom.
The War in France would though continue for 116 years.
The Black Death reached Dorset, and England, in 1349. It is estimated that one third of the population of Europe died. Although worst in the towns, it wiped out whole villages.
It was many years before the populations recovered, and the plagues kept recurring, in 1382, in 1407, and for another 250 years. We do not know the family victims.
In 1358 Isabella and John Kealwe lost some property in Saunforde (Sampford) Courtnay. In the north in 1367, John Calwe and others were in trouble in Northhelmham, Norfolk, for damage, theft and assault.
Richard de Kellawe had been in Flete Prison, London, in 1376. No doubt not a nice place then, nor later. In Devon in 1379, William and Roger Callowe were pardoned for debt outlawry. Richard and Roger may have been the same two in trouble over 30 years before. R. Calwe was fined in Somerset in 1400.
THE LAST PLANTAGENETS
The much honoured Black Prince died in 1376, the year before his father, King Edward III.
Edward’s 10 year old grandson ascended the throne as King Richard II, with Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, and John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, administering the government.
By now, new interest in art and culture, ancient Rome, ancient Greece, meant the Renaissance was slowly beginning, and following it, the Reformation.
John Wycliffe produced the first English translation of the Bible in 1380, but his beliefs were, with his Lollard followers, discredited after the Peasants Revolt by Wat Tyler in 1381. The revolt was a reaction to the Poll Tax imposed under King Richard, and suffered the same fate as a revolt by French peasants 23 years before. The Lollards were later considered heretics by the Church of Rome. Wycliffe died in 1384.
Poet Geoffrey Chaucer died in 1400.
Back in Devon in 1384, Master William Calwe of Exeter was subjected to some rough handling, and even forced to eat his seals of office by “divers disturbers of the peace”. Edward Courtenay, Earl of Devon, was involved in restoring the peace. William seems to have been one of the victims of disturbances against the King’s, and Bishop of Exeter’s, authority. He survived however, and in 1390 was issuing licences for letters of exchange overseas, while as William Kelwa, Notary Publick, he and his wife Marina gave an Oratory in 1401 - probably a Religious building. He was recorded again as a Notary Public in 1407.
In 1385 John Calwe was at an Inquisition in Dorset, and had a messuage, dwelling house, in the village of Tollard, presumably Tollard Royal, Wiltshire, the next year.
In 1399 Henry Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, returned to England, after being banished by King Richard. After defeating and capturing Richard, he was chosen by Parliament to reign as King Henry IV.
Thus bringing to a close the Royal House of Plantagenet, and founding the House of Lancaster. Richard was subsequently murdered. The Wars of the Roses, red of Lancaster, white of York, were about to begin.
Family members had presumably been in Cornwall for some time. The spelling used there however, perhaps due to the Cornish dialect, was even more varied than elsewhere.
William Kyllyow, later Sir William Kelliou, was at St Martin by Looe, in 1384 and 1389.
Looe is on the coast, suggesting further connections with trade and the sea.
Apart from shipping, there could be smuggling and wrecking activities along the coast.
Most activity in Cornwall however involved mining, particularly tin mining, and its export.
The family was probably heavily involved.
How closely related to the principal Devon/Dorset families they were we do not know and, because the mines were scattered over a large area of the County, similar names could indicate one or more of them had extensive mining interests. Some were probably quite wealthy.
The interesting Kyllyow family was separately recorded in the Heraldic records, with their own coat of arms, which included the chevron, with cinqfoils or roses.
John Kyllowe, gentleman, was in dispute over land in Lansallos. Lansallos is also on the coast, near Looe.
John Calwe was a servant to Henry Ilcombe at Bodmin in 1395. He was a Collector for Bodmin in 1398. William Kelway was involved with Bodmin property deeds in 1396.
As William Kaelwe he was involved with lands and duties in Cornwall in 1397.
John Calwa was in Launceston in 1404.
Some time between 1420-36 John Killiow married Joane Boleigh.
Their son Robert produced sons John and Bennett. John a son William. Bennett, children John and Alice. William had a son John, and later, leading into the 1500s, there was another Robert.
Thomas Caleway of Bodmin was accused of assault in 1432.
Roger Kelwa and his wife Johana are referred to in Cornwall in 1435.
In 1357 Edmund (de) Cayleway was recorded as having properties in Wiltshire. In 1364 he had some interest, along with Hugh de Courtenay, Earl of Devon, and John de Veer, Earl of Oxford, in the Dorset manors of Lychet, Frome and Wodeton, Somerford in Somerset. Wodeschestre in Gloucestershire. Sharton and Stapleford in Wiltshire.
He may have been living at Stapleford at the time. Near Salisbury, the village is only 1km from yet another Stoford. He was a witness at Chippenham in 1374, and a juror the next year.
In 1376 he became Patron of St Giles Church, Wiltshire.
The prefix “de” was now seldom used, seemingly unless with direct reference to the family manor.
To be so closely connected to Peers of the Realm, Edmund would have had a position of some importance, or wealth. This could mean continued association with the Royal Court from the time of Henry II and Edward II. Perhaps by marriage, perhaps some other family association.
It would presumablynot relate to the temporary inheritance of the Giffard estates, but there was other property in the family hands. Again there may have been some family relationships, perhaps with the Courtenays today unknown, or some battlefield, business, or other connection.
The association was however to continue for some time.
This Edmund could not have been the same man as the earlier Edmund of 1330, nor perhaps the Edmund in the records of 1357 and 1364, who must have been born around 1300, as he lived on until after 1411.
About 1380 however, John Keloway of Mockisbeare was said to be the son of John, and father of Edmond. The later Edmund was referred to, about 1410, as coming from Mockisbeare, the son of John, and the father of Thomas.
It seems perhaps therefore that Edmund was the grandson of John le Calewe, who had died in 1336.
That his father John had possibly died earlier, perhaps 1374/80, and the elder John's brother William, with wife Alice, had moved from Dorset to Wiltshire as Patron of St Giles. Edmund, born perhaps about 1330, being perhaps under age at that time.
William would remain Patron until his death in 1376, 40 years later.
All confirmation that, not only was there a close connection between Mokesbeare and Wiltshire, but that Edmund was living in Wiltshire. The relationship between the two Edmunds therefore appears to have possibly been uncle and nephew.
The heirs of John Cayleway were said to hold land in Dorset in 1376. It is not clear which John this refers to, possibly the John who died in 1336, or his son, but it confirms the continuity of the family, in Dorset, and to Sherborne, where they would be living in the future.
Edmund was patron of St Giles in Wiltshire from 1376 to 1399. With his wife Joan, he was recorded at Tuderyntone Kaylewey in 1388. With Thomas Cailleweye, presumably his son, he was in a trespass dispute with Margaret de Courtney in 1391.
Whether the dispute was the reason or not, Edmund and his wife lost the manor of Tuderyton Kaylewey about 1394, although they did retain the Chapel for life.
After a short period when a Robert Stodleigh was patron of St Giles from 1399 to 1405, John de Kayleways returned as patron for 24 years, until 1429, when the Bishop took over as patron.
John would presumably have been the second son of Edmund, but this was the last connection that the family would have with the old Wiltshire manor, and St Giles.
The family, it is said, after seven generations, had moved west.
The reason for the loss of the Wiltshire manor remains a mystery, as it had seemingly been in family hands for up to 260 years. It does not seem to have been for any misdemeanour, and none is mentioned.
Perhaps debt, which also does not seem very likely, or because they simply chose to leave the area.
A possibility however is that Margaret de Courtenay may have been the same Margaret given property in Malmesbury in 1347, or her daughter. A likely scenario is that she could have been the daughter of William, and married a Courtenay, or was the granddaughter, thereby having claim as the heiress to the manor, if William had no sons, which seems to have been the case.
Anyway the result was that Edmund and Joan moved to, or possibly built, or rebuilt, Chenstone manor at Chawleigh, Devon, 30km north west of Exeter, 30km from Mokesbeare, and 15km from Stafford Barton.
In 1400, the year after Edmund ceased to be patron of St Giles, they built three chapels at Chenstone:
St Marys at Cheldon, St James at Chawleigh and, probably obviously, St Giles. The Cheldon and Chawleigh Churches remain today. St Giles has gone.
Edmund was also patron of Cheldon Rectory, 3km from Chawleigh, from 1396 to 1411.
Referred to earlier in 1325, it seems the family could have held the properties there from very early times. Chawleigh and Cheldon having been recorded as held by the Beaumonts at Domesday.
There seems to be little reference to Mokesbeare from this time. The senior family evidently had no interest in living there.
The new proximity to Stafford Barton is of interest, as the family there were, by now, apparently more removed. Joan could have been from Chenstone, or Stafford Barton, as it is said the two families intermarried, or perhaps it was just that the new location was a more desirable place to live.
It is not clear who their children were, apart from sons Thomas and John, possibly another son Richard.
HEREFORD AND GLOUCESTER
John Calwe, of Rode, near Frome in Wiltshire, was in trouble for debt in 1399.
Nicholas Caleway was a clerk in Herefordshire in 1400.
In 1425 Richard Callewelle of Churcham Gloucestershire was in trouble over debt. Presumably yet another version of the name.
In Surrey in 1438, Nicholas Kellowe, possibly the same man from Herefordshire, was involved with the conveyance of Uvedale manors. In 1441, as Nicholas Callowe, keeper of the notorious Marchalsea Prison, at Southwark Surrey/London, he was pardoned. We do not know for what.
About 1350 Thomas of Stowford married a Prouz heiress of Gatford, in Colyton. In 1423, his presumed grandson, Thomas Stowforde and Joan his wife received Licencia Celebrandi to hold divine service at their houses in Stafford Barton and Colyton.
These records would confirm that the references to the Stowford family at this time were in fact the Stafford Barton family.
While there is a Colyton today near the south coast of Devon, and the original Stafford Barton is to the north west, it is interesting that to the east of Cullompton in Devon, there is a location Colliton.
It is near Broadhembury, while near Broadhembury, towards Dunkeswell, there is another Stafford Barton. Were these perhaps family properties – perhaps those mentioned above?
Another record indicates that John, the son of Thomas and Joan Kalleway, would have been born about 1410. The family names therefore match that in Dorset.
Again, from the pedigrees, Thomas Kelloway was the father of Philip, born about 1450.
THE DORSET WESTONS
During the reign of Edward I, from 1272-1307, Dunes Weston in Dorset was the seat of the le Calewe family. Sir Ralph/Radolphus le Calewe was recorded as holding the manor about 1250. There are a number of locations near Stalbridge with the name Weston included, and it is not clear which are the same place, but it may be that some of the property remained in family hands for over 250 years.
The family name later became le Calewe Weston and de Cale Weston, however from about 1349, for some, it changed to Weston. As in Devon therefore, where members of the Stafford Barton family gradually changed their name through de Stowford to Stowford and then to Stafford, some of the Dorset family changed their name to de Weston and finally Weston.
In the reign of Henry III, from 1216-1272, Sir Richard de Weston is mentioned as holding lands in Weston, and contemporary with him were Adam de Weston and his son William.
In 1312 William de Weston was a juror at an Inquisition in the Forest of Gillingham.
In 1387 Hugh Weston held one carucate of land in North Weston, and in 1435 Thomas, the son of Hugh, was mentioned in a deed for West Hall (Folke).
At his death in 1476 John Weston held the manor of Weston and 100 acres of land in Stalbridge. Presumably the Stalbridge Weston of today.
Exactly how these people related to Sir Ralph, and John le Calewe, we do not know for certain, but they may have lived at, or about, the earlier Dunes Weston. It seems probable they were related.
The Weston family arms are of considerable interest. There is a large number of them, including some in Staffordshire in the north, presumably a differently sourced family, and others in Ireland. Some of the arms from Stafford, which may date back to Domesday and Normandy, have the eagle displayed, similar to the French Caillouet arms.
Five Weston families however, including Heath-Ham in Dorset, Colleton in Devon, West Horsley and Oakham in Surrey, have the chevron with leopards faces. All presumably therefore branches of the same family. “Colleton” appears again.
One of two West Horsley Weston families had the leopards without the chevron, and is said to have descended from Adam de Weston in the time of King John. Their crest is a wolf, "ducally" gorged. Presumably the above Adam and, with the origin of the leopards being in 1223, suggesting that they are very old arms. The Dukedom may however be later - for Richard Weston, created Earl of Portland in 1633.
Again, who were the Westons living at Colleton in Devon? They appear to date from the time of Elizabeth. And which Colleton?
It appears that the use of the "Weston" arms, of a chevron with leopards faces, seen also with a number of C/K families, may in some way therefore, have originated at Dunes Weston in Dorset.
Dunes Weston was a family manor from the mid 1200s at least. What connection there was with West Horsely in Surrey however remains unknown. It could have been much later.
The family from "Weston" in Dorset have a chevron with roses, somewhat similar to the Leicester Giffard arms. Other Weston families had a chevron with talbots or holly leaves, and cinqfoils.
Some Weston families appear to have DNA similar to ours.
Much of the information concerning the family in this period came from Church records, and these records give some indication of who and where the family was at the time, if without any direct line of descent.
It was common for younger sons of a family to join the Church, and the family was undoubtedly closely connected with the Church, as is evidenced particularly at Durham, Kellaways, Cheldon, and the Churches of St Giles, in Wiltshire, Devon and Dorset, at least.
Among the family ecclesiastical records are:
In 1353 Robert Calwe was appointed chaplain of Carswell Church, Exeter, evidently after leaving Sherborne Abbey. An early family reference to Sherborne.
Robert de Calwe was vicar of St Andrews, Wells, in 1356.
In Ledbury Church, Herefordshire, there is a memorial brass to Sir William Kelway, priest and knight.
He was chantry priest of St Annes Chapel, and died in 1409. He is referred to as chaplain in 1387, and in 1390, as a clerk, to be enfoeffed of the manors of Basyngge and Bromlegh in Hampshire. His memorial shows him wearing academic robes, indicating that he may also have been master of the Grammar School. He may also have been a Lollard, although Lollards were not too popular by that time.
As regards his name, there was a suggestion, in 1871, that “Callowe” may have derived from two places near Hereford and Ledbury.
There are several places in Gloucestershire with versions of Callow, Callow Hill, Callow End and Callows Grave, but it seems more likely, particularly with Callow's Grave, that these relate to the very early Gloucester family, rather than the other way around.
There is also a possibility that William may have been the same man as the unfortunate clerk in Exeter, who was forced to eat his seals of office. However, unless William moved from Ledbury to Exeter, and returned to be buried there, it does not seem likely. The Exeter William also had a wife. We do not know how and when the Ledbury man received his knighthood, but it would seem he may have come from a fairly prominent family, and had led an active life, before taking church orders.
In 1388, William Calwe, clerk, was to have been paid a yearly rent of 12 marks for a property in Northcraye, Kent. This may have been the man from Exeter, or another William.
The Registers of Edmund Stafford and Edmund Lacy, when bishops of Exeter between 1395 and 1450, indicate a number of family members under Church orders in Devon and Cornwall. Unfortunately these do not include Sherborne, Hampshire or Wiltshire, which were under separate Bishoprics, but indicate close ties with Exeter at least.
From these we note John Kaylewaye ennachduneusem majori in 1397, and Richard Calwe/Kelwa at Tavystoke in 1399 and 1404. John Calwe was at Chuddlegh in 1400 and probably as John Kelwa at Tavystoke in 1404. William Kelyowe was parson of St Erme, Cornwall, in 1408, while the same year William Kelwa was prebendary of Lanothull in the Collegiate Church of Haberguyly. Perhaps the same man, William Kelwe/Kelwa, between 1411 and 1414, went through the consecutive orders of Tonsurati, Accoliti, Subdiaconi, Diaconi and Presbiteri at Tavistock Abbey. Another William Kelwe was at Lelant in 1411, Clyst in 1413, and may have gone to Colebrook in 1415. Stephen Kyllyawe was at Bodmin in 1414.
Thomas Calwe was at Tavystoke in 1414, Thomas Calow in Penryn in 1417. Possibly the same person. The Parson of St Erme had become a Kylyow by 1415, and the omission of the end “e” raises the question, as to whether Kylyow, Kelwa and Kaylewaye really are the same name. Phonetically they must be different, yet later the latter two definitely mixed.
The Cornish Killyow families had slightly different arms, but with the chevron.
In 1401 Thomas Calewe was a chaplain in Herefordshire.
In the south west again, Willemus Keleway was at Chuddleigh in 1427, in Bodmin in 1429. From 1427 to 1443 Jacobus Keleway was in Pensance. He went to Chuddleigh in 1443 and St Nicholai Exeter in 1444, then as sir James Kelwa, was Rector of Dodbroke in 1450.
Rogerus Cayleway and Johannes Kalwe are jointly listed in 1434, suggesting two different families, the longer version seemingly from the east, Wiltshire and Chawleigh, the shorter form perhaps from Exeter. Johannes Kylway appears with Alexander Kylway in 1442. Also Johannes Kelow/Kylow in 1443-4.
"sir" Peter Kelyow was Vicar of Feok in 1450. Richardus Cayleway received his Tonsurati in 1441 and Richard Calwe was Dean of Cadbury in 1449-50, possibly the same man, despite the different spelling. James Keyleway was Cutor of Exeter Cathedral.
The title “sir” here, and recorded in the Registers later, would relate to the Clergical Monseigneur, rather than the Knightly “Sir” of Sir William Kelway of Ledbury. Therefore the “sir” is retained.
These men would not have had descendants, unless married previously, but it indicates that there were several families in Devon and Cornwall at the time, probably also in Somerset and Wiltshire, at least.
It is virtually impossible today to determine the exact relationship of the accepted families of Wiltshire and Devon. However a possible line of descent, commencing with the de Caillys, and with approximate birth dates, could be:
GLOUCESTER / WILTSHIRE MOKESBEARE DEVON (STOWFORD) DURHAM
Osbern de Cailly 1020
Guillaume de Cailly 1045
Philip (m. Hawisa) 1110 M
Philip/Hugh 1145 M Nicholas 1140
Elias 1170 M Philip 1165
Elias/William 1200 M William 1195
John/Thomas 1225 M Thomas 1230 Alexander/Thomas 1230
John 1255-1308 Philip 1260 Richard 1260-1316
John 1285-1336 M Thomas 1290
John/William 1310-1376 M Philip 1320-
Edmund 1345-1412 M Thomas 1370-
Thomas/John 1370-1429 M John 1410-
John/William 1395-1469 Thomas 1440-
The “M” noted above relates the Pedigree of Mokisbeare to the presumed lineage of Wiltshire and Devon, as available from other Pedigrees and known information. Matching names may indicate the same person.
The birth dates are approximate only, and assume 25-30 year generations, although that figure may vary considerably. The Devon names and dates particularly.
Dates of death are not known except in a few later cases.
THE BINGHAM INHERITANCE
Later information on the family relates to only the two sources, Dorset and Devon, and everything, including the Heraldic Visitations and the Coats of Arms, refers to either Sherborne or Stafford Barton.
The arms of each only differed in minor respects.
Dorset, where the senior family lived apparently from around 1250 at least, assumes the greater importance, and is the source of the more heavily recorded family members of the next 350 years.
Throughout history there have been many family members about whom we know nothing.
The 1400s were little different. There was more written information available but, particularly regarding Johns and Williams, it has been difficult to distinguish one from another, and to place them in particular families. They begin with Thomas, an unusual name in the Dorset family, but common in Devon.
The best known family in Tudor times, of Rockborne in Hampshire, was said to have inherited much of their wealth from the Bingham family, and the marriage of Thomas, the son of Edmund de Kayleway, to Joane Bingham.
Joane was the daughter and heiress of Thomas and Marian Bingham de Sutton. Her mother Marian had been the heiress of her father John, who died in 1399, and grandfather Walter Ramsay/Rumsey, following the death of her brother Sir John Ramsey in 1421. Joane was therefore, by 1421 at least, a potentially wealthy woman.
As Thomas Kayleway Esq., Armiger, was Patron of the Church at Sutton Bingham, 3km south of Yeovil, in 1412 and 1417, and presented clerks there in 1412 and 1422, he was probably living there.
Probably born about 1370, possibly married before, he was older than usual to marry Joane about 1410-12. He may have taken over the Bingham estates at marriage, the Ramsey properties some time after 1421.
Later members of the family were recorded as presenting clerks to Sutton Bingham in 1500, 1536, 1541.
Thomas had been involved with Edmund in the dispute with Margaret de Courtney in Wiltshire in 1391. He was said to be the son of Edmund, and presumably, although not definitely, therefore the elder brother of John, who was the last Patron of St Giles, and would reappear at Sherborne.
Not previously a name used by the Dorset family, there is no known reason for the eldest son to be called Thomas, and John would seem more likely, apart from the move of the parents Edmund and Joan to Devon, where Thomas was used. John could possibly have been the elder son, but chose to live in Wiltshire.
The family was however continuing a close relationship with their Devon cousins.
There was some suggestion of intermarriage, and this could be an indication of it.
Thomas and Joan had a son John, born probably around 1412, and for some time there was confusion over which John was recorded in Dorset. The situation became more complicated with both families, those of Thomas and John, producing sons named William.
King Henry IV had died in 1413, and his son Henry V, despite concern about some youthful irresponsibility, led England to further victories against the French, and become a much-respected monarch.
The Battle of Agincourt in 1415 again demonstrated the superiority of the English longbow, even in the hands of exhausted troops, against the numerically superior, but overconfident, French Army.
By 1420 Henry could enter Paris in triumph, and marry the French Princess Catherine de Valois.
Two years later however he was dead, and the throne passed to his 9 month old, half French son Henry, as King Henry VI.
In 1429, 17 year old Joan of Arc began the restoration of France to the future King Charles VII.
She was though to die at the stake two years later.
After 1436, when the Scots defeated an English army at Berwick, the English were driven out of Scotland.
In 1441, the Portugese began the African slave trade.
In 1450 the French defeated the English in Normandy, and that year Kentish rebels led by John Cade entered London. Cade was killed soon afterwards.
More positively, Eton College was founded in 1440.
There is little mention of Thomas after 1420, but in 1436 a Thomas Calleway resigned from the Monks Shirborn vicarage. He may have retired there, or actually joined the Church.
A Thomas Kelowe was involved with tax collection in Wiltshire in 1442, and as Thomas Calawey, alias Chamberleyn, presumably the same man, was pardoned over the death of Michael Rowperyn in 1445. Particularly because of the alias, seen there for one of the first times, there is some doubt as to who this was. Clearly an important occupational name, there would be a number of other family aliases later.
Thomas’s widow Joane, nee Bingham, was said to have married William Horsey.
Eleanor Kelwaye had married Ralph de Horsey of Sherborne about 1350.
While it has not been possible to determine precisely when or how the later family came to Sherborne, John Keylewey was a Trustee of the Sherborne Almshouse in 1419, together with his presumed brother Richard, of whom there is no further mention. John presumably lived there before relinquishing the patronage of St Giles, Wiltshire in 1429.
It would seem however that the family had held property in Sherborne earlier, possibly much earlier.
Sherborne had one of the best known of the Abbeys in England, and was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Salisbury. In the 1430s, there was a dispute there between the monks of the Abbey and the townspeople who used part of the building as their parish church. When the Bishop visited Sherborne at the end of 1436, he met with John Kayleway and three others to hear complaints over the removal of a baptismal font and the narrowing of a doorway at the Abbey (both visible today). The matter was seemingly resolved, but later the situation got out of hand, and a riot ensued. The village priest shot a flaming arrow into the partly thatched roof of the building, the resulting fire spread, and destroyed much of the building.
It is not recorded what happened to the priest, but the townspeople did penance by rebuilding the Abbey.
A task that took nearly 40 years.
This occasion links the family to the Abbey. It might explain the glaziers grosing/cripping irons in the coat of arms, as the stained glass windows would have been a major component of the restoration.
We know John is a common name in the family. We can assume that the John who appears at the Abbey, was the same John de Kayleways who was Patron of St Giles in Wiltshire from 1405 to 1429, then Patron of Cheldon Rectory in Devon in 1440. If so he could have been quite young when he became the Patron of St Giles, moving to Sherborne, then Chawleigh or Cheldon when elderly.
The Patron of a Church did not have to live nearby, but he could not have been living at Sherborne, Wiltshire and Devon at the same time, so there may possibly have been another John.
The “de” would now no longer have relevance once they had left the original Wiltshire manor, but the names are otherwise similar.
John Keylewey was trustee of the Sherborne Almshouse in 1419. In 1424 he, and his wife Agnes, were receiving rent from messuages in Sherborne. In 1424 and 1427 he was involved with Inquisitions Post Mortem. As John de Calaway he held Sutton, Devon, in 1428.
Johannes Caleway, armiger, was called to present himself at Court in 1434, although this John, by then, may have been the son of Thomas and Joan Bingham. Born presumably about 1412.
A John was involved with tax collection at Southwark in 1440.
The same year John Kayleway received a Grant for Strode.
In 1441 John Caleway, esquire, with others, was given power of attorney over properties in Cornwall, Devon and Oxfordshire. He may then even have actually been living at Ardyngton Berkshire. If this is the case he would seem to have moved again.
The descriptions "armiger" and “esquire” indicate that John was close to a knighthood. But whether referring to the elder, or younger nephew John, we do not know.
John Caleway was Page of the Cellar and Bailiff of Drayton in 1446. John and William Kayleway, presumably his cousin, the son of the elder John, were paid 100 marks for land in Somerset in 1446.
In 1453, after dragging their fleet overland to attack the city, the Ottoman Turks had finally taken Constantinople from the Byzantines. It was also the first use of huge canon.
The fall of Constantinople, sadly ended the Byzantine Empire but, by sending scholars towards Rome, actually hastened the Renaissance.
The same year, the French used canon to defeat the English at Castillon, and finally end the Hundred Years War.
That year Sir John Calaway, previously recorded as an “armiger” and “esquire”, had furnished 15 footmen for the Flanders Army. Unless very aged, this seems unlikely to refer to the elder John, Thomas and Joan's son John appears by then to have been knighted. Although as the title was not used again, perhaps not.
In 1454 "John" Kayleway held lands in Motcombe Dorset.
John and William were together again for an inheritance of land in 1457.
In 1458 John Calowe had reference to a number of properties in Dorset, including Sturmystremarchall and Charleton. John was again, in 1459, this time with Thomas Courtenay, Earl of Devon, involved with extensive property in Dorset and Devon, for which the large sum of £1000 was paid. The presence of the Earl, and the value of the property, suggests that John, if not wealthy himself, had important connections. The Courtenay family was very powerful in Dorset and Devon at the time. In 1461 John and his wife Agnes received rent from messuages in Sherborne. In 1466 John was again involved with extensive properties in Dorset.
When John the son of Edmund died is another issue. As he may have been living in Devon, the later references probably refer to his nephew.
The Inquisition Post Mortem on John Caleway Esq. in 1467, by age alone, implies he was the son of Thomas. His son John was born about 1448, and the references to “John” between 1440 and 1467, suggests a John, born around 1410. The three Johns therefore could have been uncle, father and son, born about 1375, 1410 and 1448 respectively.
The 1467 IPM mentioned Rockborne in Hampshire, indicating that John had possession of the manor there at that time.
WILLIAM OF SHERBORNE
Initially the only definite information we held on the Dorset family in the 1400s was the 1469 will of William Cayleway of Sherborne, and the later somewhat fragmented County Heraldic Pedigrees, first recorded in the 1500s.
The Pedigrees began with the marriage of a William Cayleway to Joanne Barrett, and while the available records were only from Wiltshire (Whitparish) and Somerset (Barwick), and to a lesser extent Devon, with the will, were considered enough to describe William as the progenitor of the Dorset branch of the family.
Born about 1395-1400, William's will gave his father’s name as John, presumably John de Kayleway, the son of Edmund.
He would thus have been a direct descendant of the Dorset family of John le Calewe of Stalbridge Weston, whose ancestry is known back to Elias and Bertha Kaillewey in the 1100s. Living at Stalbridge, only a few km from Sherborne, the family could have had property in Sherborne at least from the time of the marriage of Eleanor Kelwaye to Ralph de Horsey about 1350, perhaps earlier.
Apart from that, the association between Edmund and the Earl of Devon may indicate his social position, particularly if Margaret had indeed married a Courtenay.
William appears to have achieved some importance in Sherborne, and much of the succeeding information relates to him, his cousins, and his descendants. There is no record as yet of any major achievements.
He would seem to be too young to have been at Agincourt with Henry V in 1415, but could have been there as a youth, perhaps with a Horsey or Courtenay. There may have been some political or private service, or it may simply have been his family background.
However William Kaylwey was the Parliamentary Representative for Dorchester in 1437. The next year he was paid 12d for riding to Hooke and other parts. Travelling expenses.
He was witness in a Chancery case in 1439, while between 1440-1, he relinquished claim to property in Fulham, Middlesex. At this time he acquired property in Bristol. In 1450 he was at a Commission of Inquiry in Somerset. The next year he made a beneficial exchange. In 1454 William Kayleway, John Kayleway and others, acquired, for £40, a messuage in Shirborne, and in Charleton, a dovecote and 200 acres, for 100 marks of silver. Primarily, it seems, for his cousin John and his heirs for life.
In 1457 William inherited land in Somerset.
The first Battle of St Albans occurred in 1455. The Wars of the Roses had begun.
William was made Commissioner of the Peace in Dorset in 1458, by Lancastrian King Henry VI, and the next year was commissioned to resist the rebellion of Richard Duke of York.
Henry was defeated by the Yorkists at Northampton in 1460. In February 1461 the Yorkists defeated the Welsh, and after the second Battle of St Albans, Henry was deposed, and Edward, Earl of March, the son of the Duke of York, was crowned King Edward IV. The same year William helped raise men to defend Dorset, presumably this time to support the Yorkists.
He was collecting taxes in Dorset in 1463.
He may have been involved with the restoration work on Sherborne Abbey. Something that later could bring credit to the family.
William died in 1469. His will, the second of the family we have, refers to his father John, son William, aged 28, and grandchildren, John, William, Agnes and Alice. The grandchildren presumably then being very young.
If so it seems a little strange that the grandsons John and William particularly were bequeathed property, but their father William, born in 1441, married heiress Joan Barrett about 1463, and acquired her property.
TROUBLE IN CORNWALL
About this time, in Cornwall in 1454, Richard Kelwa of Pensans, along with a number of others, was accused of stealing a ship’s cargo. In the previous century, earlier Richards had been involved with shipping, and had upset the Law. Two years later, Roger Kelwa, late of Trenewyth Chamon, Cornwall, gentleman, was pardoned over the forgery of a property deed. Curiously an earlier Roger had also been in trouble.
Perhaps Richards and Rogers in the family had some propensity towards mischief.
THE WARS OF THE ROSES
The first battle of the Wars of the Roses between the Royal Houses of York and Lancaster had occurred in 1455. Two years earlier, in 1453, John and Hugh Cayleway were to be delivered of Exeter Gaol, but whether they were there for criminal or political activities, perhaps a property squabble, is not clear.
Five others and a Chaplain were also involved.
Hugh Calowe owned land in Broadwoodkelly Devon in 1420, and it appears the later John of Cullompton was his descendant.
In 1456 Robert Calway of Ilkelay, Labourer, and others, including a Rector and a Chaplain, were to be delivered of the gaol of York Castle. They may have been on the moor “without their hats” (old ballad - “On Ilkley Moor Baht'at”), but it seems more likely to have been for political activities.
The John in Exeter appears likely to have been the same man involved with the Earl of Devon, six years later. If the nephew of William, with Hugh perhaps another cousin, William, as Commissioner of Peace in Dorset, could have secured their release.
Two Courtenays, Earls of Devon, had been killed/executed by 1471, while both the Earl of Dorset and the Duke of Somerset, Lancastrian supporters of Henry VI, had been killed by 1464.
Family members may well have had a close association with one or more of them, and, just as they may have reached a pinnacle of wealth and importance by that time, their activities seem to have been more subdued for the next 30 years.
It is also of interest that Yorkist King Edward IV had been briefly forced into exile in Burgundy in 1470.
At Bruges, where today we have the record of a de Caluwe/Kaluwe family coat of arms. Perhaps further evidence of family presence in the Low Countries, earlier suggested in 1297.
Research now tells us that William of Sherborne married twice, his first wife was named Isabell, his second was Joan Ledred, nee Whittock. From his will, we have a son William, grandchildren John, William, Agnes and Alice. The named grandchildren presumably having been born shortly before his death in 1469.
We know nothing specific of his son William, unless some of the references between 1457 and 1463 were of him. Nor of any other sons or family.
William however, born in 1441, married Joan Barrett. Probably in 1463.
Joan Barrett of Whitparish, Wiltshire, was the daughter and heiress of Henry Barrett. Henry’s father, John Barrett, in 1413 owned estates at Bapton and Tisbury, inherited from his cousin Thomas Payne, and before him, Thomas's father-in-law John Ellis. Also property inherited from the Camells of Fittleford.
William would have thereby acquired a number of estates in Wiltshire and Dorset.
According to the Pedigrees in the Heraldic Visitations, William and Joan had two sons, Thomas and Moris, and according to the Devon Pedigrees, another son, John. There seems to have been at least one daughter. They would have been born presumably between 1465-70.
Joan died after 1482, as that year she and William gifted the manors of Ifeld, Wellys and Coswyngton, to the King, for which they received 350 marks of silver.
William's second wife was said to have been a Stanter of Hornysham. By her he had three sons, William, Peter, and another Thomas. Born perhaps between 1485-90.
Unfortunately with regard to the later families in Dorset, it is only the descendants of the elder Thomas who were recorded in the Pedigrees, as the senior family, and who were to inherit the Barrett property.
It seems therefore that his elder brothers John and William had pre-deceased him, perhaps before maturity.
It has now been determined that William's uncle Thomas and Joane Bingham had a son John born about 1410, and three daughters, Joan, Marion and Alicia, before Thomas's death about 1422.
Again the Heraldic Pedigrees are minimal in their references, and only one, Dorset, records the marriage, otherwise there is no reference until John, later to become Sir John, the son of his grandson, Sir William.
The elder John's son John was born about 1446, a second son William, later Sir William, about 1448, and there were possibly as many as seven daughters.
From his IPM, the elder John died in 1467, his son John apparently not long afterwards.
It was William who achieved note. He married twice. To another Joan, and Elizabeth Payne, nee Stawell.
As William Callwey he was made Knight Commander of the Bath on the occasion of the marriage of Arthur, Prince of Wales, on November 17 1501.
The first of the three Rockbourne knights.
Although evidently in favour with Henry VII, the first of the Tudor Kings, it seems unlikely he was earlier involved with the brief restoration of Lancastrian King Henry VI in 1471, or in the West Country uprisings of 1483, although he received two commissions of array from Yorkist King Richard III in 1484. The year before Richard was killed in the Battle of Bosworth Field. Unless William changed sides, it may have been for other actions or activities. The rebuilding of Sherborne Abbey also had been completed in 1475.
The family was apparently later involved with stained glass in the churches, and this, together with the initial relationship with the Abbey, could have something to do with the glaziers cripping irons in the coat of arms, which could date from around this time, or possibly in 1501.
King Edward IV had died in 1483. Edward's 12 year old son and heir, Edward V, and his brother, were thought to have been murdered in the Tower of London, probably by order of Richard (Crouchback) Duke of Gloucester, who then acceded to the throne as King Richard III.
As consequence, Richard had little support in England, and two years later, in 1485, the Welsh Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, landed in Wales with 1800 French troops.
Richard was defeated and killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Henry was crowned King Henry VII.
When Henry married Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward IV, the next year, he united the Houses of Lancaster and York, thereby ending the Wars of the Roses, and founding the House of Tudor.
Christopher Columbus sailed to the West Indies in 1492, proving at the same time that the world was round, and introducing Spain, and Europe, to the wealth of the Americas.
In 1497 John Cabot reached mainland America at Labrador, taking the northern lands for England.
Almost exactly 500 years after Leif Erikson and his Vikings, before them.
The same year, Portugese navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope. He reached India the next year, 1498, opening the East to European trade. Gold, silver, spices.
Together with the Renaissance then developing in Italy, the Reformation was about to begin. Events that were to have momentous effects upon the future of the World.
There would be few family IPMs or wills, for some time. However in a will dated 1492, William Kelway of Marnhull,, referred to his wife Elizabeth, and to Thomas. It is not clear who this William was, or which Thomas was referred to, but it is possible he was the son of the later William and Joan. Aged about 25, he may have been sickly, and his younger brother Thomas assumed the senior role in the family.
We do not know their father William's death date.
Marnhull, 5km from Stalbridge Weston, was to be the home of a number of families in the 1500s.
Also in 1492, William Kayleway was referred to with regard to a commission in Whiteparish.
The spelling suggests a member of the other Dorset family of William of Sherborne, particularly as Whitparish had been inherited by them, through Joan Barrett. Sir William had been living at Rockbourne from 1488 at least, and it was presumably Thomas and William of Marnhull's father William.
In 1497 William Kelway of Sherborne was fined £10, for not contesting the Cornish Uprising of Perkin Warbeck over major tax increases. They had marched through to London, before being stopped.
The descendants of Thomas Kayleway and Joan Bingham evidently lived initially at Sutton Bingham, Dorset. Rockbourne Manor had been acquired through the marriage of Thomas Kayleway to Joan Bingham of Sutton Bingham about 1410, and at some time prior to 1488 they moved to Hampshire.
In 1500, the year before he was knighted, William Caleway esquire, had presented “sir” Henry Feyrman as Priest to the Church of Sutton Byngham, the old inheritance from the Bingham family.
In 1505, now as William Caleway knight, he assisted in the restoration of Elizabeth Shelford as Abbess of the Benedictine Monastery of Shaftsbury in Dorset.
Later that year, as William Kaylway, strangely with no mention of his knighthood, he presented sir William Tanner as Priest at Sutton Byngham.
In 1507, Sir William was made Commissioner of the Peace in Wiltshire.
He died the same year.
Rockbourne Manor in Hampshire was to become the most important location for the family over the next 100 years.
Sir William had evidently been living at Rockbourne for some time. John, his son and heir, inherited Rockbourne, cottages at Gorlegh, a tenement in Winchester, the manors of Combysett and Ferneham, a tenement in le Devyses, messuages in Wentworth and Exeter.
An unusual aspect of the Heraldic Pedigrees is that, while the daughters of Sir William are referred to when marrying into other families, he was not even mentioned as the father of his son John, later Sir John.
A strange omission perhaps suggesting the earlier Thomas was actually the second son of Edmund, but more favoured. Although the Rockbourne branch appeared to retain older family property, from before the Bingham marriage. In particular in Devon. Perhaps Thomas's brother John had some disability/problem.
Meanwhile William and Joan Barrett’s eldest surviving son, Thomas, evidently remained at Sherborne, and married a Lewston of Lewston, Dorset. In the reign of Tudor King Henry VII, between 1486 and 1505, Thomas contested ownership of 1059 acres at Bapton, Wiltshire with Thomas Hymerford, concerning property inherited from the Barrett family, but claimed by Thomas Estcourt, another son-in-law.
The beginning of a lengthy property dispute, it may partly explain later confusion with his father William.
Thomas had at least two sons, Robert and William, and a daughter, Agnes. Robert, who also evidently lived at Sherborne, married Joan Marshall of Evithorne (Ivythorne).
The second son William settled at Stalbridge, 10km from Sherborne, and married twice; Elizabeth Wyffen, and Elinor Coker, the daughter of John Coker of Ash (Ashbosham), Dorset.
The Stalbridge property may have been a part of the old manor of Dunes Weston.
Thomas's arms, including the star of a third son, are seen in St Katherines Chapel, Sherborne Abbey.
We know nothing of William’s son Moris, but when a John died in 1478, he was said to have left property in Cheriton Fitzpaine to his daughter Agnes and her husband Thomas Pomeray of Tregony, Cornwall, whom she could have married shortly before.
Referred to in both Devon and Cornwall Pedigrees, as the son of William and Joanna Barrett, John would seem much too young, and more likely to be a son of William of Sherborne, born perhaps about 1440.
Another John Calowe gave up land in Little Kimmeridge, Dorset in 1483.
William and Joan also had a daughter, Agnes, who contested her inheritance from her grandfather.
She married Richard Estcott, whose family was later involved in the property dispute over Bapton.
Although Sir William and the Rockborne family had by now assumed greater importance, descendants of William and Joan Barrett, and his second wife, moved back into Wiltshire, and to new homes in Dorset.
Robert, son of William's son Thomas and his wife Joan, had two sons, John and Martin. John seems to have left Sherborne for Whitparish in Wiltshire, married Jane Garwen of Northington, and had a son, Henry, and two daughters, Philip and Elizabeth.
He was living at Bapton in 1520 and 1545, bought Edmund Estcourt’s interests in Fisherton Anger, near Warminster, and the same year, after a lengthy dispute, conveyed the Hampton (Downton) Estate to Edmund Estcourt, while obtaining his property in Fisherton.
He died in 1568, leaving the properties in Bapton and Tisbury to his son Henry.
Martin, the second son of Robert, settled at Lillingston, near Sherborne, and married Dorothy Frampton of Buckland. Martin died, leaving no direct heirs, in 1575.
STALBRIDGE AND STOFORD
Thomas’s second son William, born 1506, settled at Stalbridge.
Whether there was any direct connection with the old Dunes Weston manor and lands of 1250, is not clear, but it does seem to confirm the link back, through John le Calewe, to Sir Ralph Calewe of Dunes Weston.
William married twice, Elizabeth Wyffen and Ellinor Coker, Thomas and Elizabeth had three sons, Thomas the Elder, Richard and William. Daughters Johan and Cecily.
Thomas the Elder, married Margaret Martin, and they had a son Henery, born 1567.
William’s second marriage to Ellinor produced the two sons, Thomas the Younger, and Robert.
The two families may have been born some years apart, which could account for the son by Elizabeth and the eldest son by Ellinor both being called Thomas.
There is no mention in his will of any other children from William’s marriage to Elizabeth, and two surviving sons, by different mothers, both named Thomas, was a little unusual, although William's grandfather William also had two sons named Thomas, presumably born some years apart.
The large family of John of Cullompton in Devon had two Marys (called the elder and the younger).
Thomas the Younger married Elizabeth, daughter of Davy Joanes (perhaps of “locker” fame), of Barwick Somerset. Their children were Richard 1576, Andrew, Robert, Raffe 1587, and Ursula, and they evidently lived at Stowford, 3km from Yeovil, and from Sutton Bingham, Dorset.
Their children were born at Stalbridge, Barwick and Blandford.
Blandford may also have contained earlier property of the le Calewes.
Stowford also raises the question, as to whether there was any connection, other than coincidence, between the various Sto(w)fords. It seems this one at least may have originally been a family name.
Because of the location of Stoford, and a lack of information on other branches of the family in the Pedigrees, Richard, Andrew, Robert and Ralph were presumably the forebears of a number of the families who appear in Somerset and Dorset in the next century.
SIR JOHN OF ROCKBOURNE
Leaving Sherborne, its environs, and Dorset generally, the most significant branch of the family was to be that of the Knights of Rockbourne in Hampshire, and there were to be two more of them.
King Henry VII had died in 1509, and was succeeded by his son Henry VIII, the multiwived and most flamboyant of the Tudors.
In 1513 at the Battle of Flodden Field, King James IV of Scotland was defeated and killed by English troops.
Four years later, in 1517, German Catholic Priest and Theologian Martin Luther virtually singlehandedly introduced the Protestant Reformation. A long period of religious and civil unrest in Europe would begin.
In 1520 Henry VIII and Francois I of France, with 10,000 courtiers, met near Calais, on the Field of the Cloth of Gold, crippling the French Treasury, and probably the English as well.
The same year, 1520, Portugese navigator Ferdinand Magellan sailed around Cape Horn into the Pacific, on the first circumnavigation of the world. He reached, and died, in the Philippines the next year.
The Spanish were now beginning their conquest and colonisation of the central and south Americas.
The Portugese, Africa and the East Indies.
Pope Alexander VI had already “divided” the New Worlds between Spain and Portugal in 1493, and Cabot began the English exploration for the North West Passage, to find an alternative route to the East.
Henry of course was to acquire his six wives. He fought with his leading churchmen, and with Rome, before, in 1534, making himself head of the new “Protestant” Church of England.
In 1539, he began the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Copernicus died in 1543, Martin Luther in 1546. The Catholic Spanish Inquisition began burning Protestants.
In 1547 King Henry VIII died and was succeeded by his 10 year old son Edward VI.
Robert Keilway became involved with the Dissolution of the Chantries that followed.
It is not entirely clear who was in Sir William Caleway’s family, other than his heir John, a daughter Lora, who married Sir Amias Pawlett of Hinton St George in 1505, Somerset, (he died in 1538), and Lady Jane, who married John Payne of Hutton near Weston Super Mare.
Robert Keilway of New Sarum Wiltshire, father of the noted legal Robert, may have been a son, but his name was spelt very differently and, if so, there was strangely no mention of him in any Heraldic Pedigrees.
William's son John, born about 1470, married, as his first wife, Ann, daughter of Henry Strangeways, another old Dorset family. They had a son William, later Sir William, and daughter Dorathey, who was to marry first, John Buller of Somerset, secondly William, “Black Will” Lyte.
John himself was nominated as Sheriff of Hampshire from 1511 onwards, and was knighted about 1530.
As Sir John, he was appointed Royal Commissioner for Wastes, Sewers, Walls and Bridges for the New Forest and Hampshire in 1533 and 1535.
He was involved with the presentation of sir John Stone as Priest at Sutton Bingham in 1541.
Sir John, by his second wife, Emma FitzNele, had four sons, Gyles, John, Henery and George, and a daughter Elizabeth, who married Robert Martin of Athelhampton, Dorset. Her coat of arms can be seen in several parts of Athelhampton House. She would later marry Sir John Tregonwell, and the family arms are seen again at Milton Abbas Abbey.
Robert Keilway gave Woodesforde Manor to Elizabeth at her wedding.
The tomb of Sir John Tregonwell at Milton Abbey, near Milton Abbas and Melcombe Bingham, displays the Kelway arms of Sir John’s first wife, together with the arms of the Bingham and Ramsey families.
Sir John Kelway’s sons, or two of them at least, were beneficiaries from the Dissolution of the Chantries, largely administered by their cousin Robert Keilway.
When he died in 1547, the same year as King Henry VIII, his son and heir, William Kelway esquire, was given licence to enter all lands in England, Wales, Calais and the Marches, owned by his father.
This indicates there was extensive property involved, including France, and the North. If this also included Durham, that would seem to confirm a link back to the original family there.
If it included the Welsh Marches, rather than the Scottish, it could even offer a link back to the Hereford Roger, and the early family.
In 1496, William Webbe, alias Kellowe, was mayor of Salisbury, in Wiltshire.
Another alias, it is not clear whether he was a family member, or acquired the name in some manner. Webbe however was an occupational name, which suggests a forbear might possibly have been a Kellowe.
The Webbe name was however apparently older, as in 1423 Henry Prest alias Webbe was a Burgess of Dorchester. Perhaps of no relevance here, the “occupational” name Burgess also has DNA similarity.
William was mayor again several times afterwards. His descendants however seem to have retained the Webb(e) family name.
Whether there was any family connection or not, we do not know, but there were to be two more Mayors of Salisbury in the early 1500s. Robert Keilway the elder, and his son Robert Keilway the younger.
Both were mayors, both were legal men, but unfortunately their exact relationship to the greater family is still not clear. Nor their relationship, if any, to William Webbe.
The elder Robert however could have been the Robert Kayleway of Whytisbury, gentleman, who was owed £12 by John Turnour of Twyford in 1499.
He married Alice Gover, and may have had daughters Emma, who married Thomas Gerrard of Longehide, and Alice, who married William Gawen of Northington.
Robert Keilway the younger was to become the best known and most recorded of all the members of the family. Born in 1497, he was well educated, and in his long life was to have an important position in law, and in the Kingdom.
Not a family name after the early 1300s, Robert was possibly a member of the Rockbourne family, perhaps an unrecorded grandson of Sir William Caylewey. He seems to have associated with both Dorset families, but living largely in London, would have been in closer contact with the Rockbourne family.
He was said to have lived initially at Lillington House, near Sherborne, the home of his cousin Martin. However this almost certainly refers to Martin's father Robert.
Between 1532 and 1544 he continued the contest over the ownership of Bapton with Edmund Estcourt.
In 1534 he secured the entry of William Gawyn to the Inner Temple.
William was presumably his brother-in-law.
He was appointed Surveyor of Liveries in the Government of young King Edward VI. Thomas Seymour, Duke of Somerset, was Lord Protector to the King, and this West Country connection may have been a factor, although he must have had an impressive legal career, and members of his family had been at the Courts of Kings Henry VII and Henry VIII.
Robert had joint charge of the Dissolution of the Chantries, which followed the earlier Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII.
In 1547 Robert granted his manor of Woodesforde to his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Caylewaye, and her husband Robert Martyn of Athelhampton.
The family arms can be seen today at Athelhampton Hall.
In 1547 he was made Commissioner of the Peace in Southampton (Hampshire), Wiltshire, Somerset, Dorset, Devon, Cornwall and the City of Exeter; the whole of southwest England. The same year, as Robert Keylwey gentleman, of the Inner Temple, alias of Durcuforde and Salisbury, Wiltshire, and Pudylcow (Puddletown? Piddlehinton?) Dorset, he was pardonned for “offences”.
In 1548 he was on the Royal Commission for the Establishment of Schools in Somerset, and the following year he was appointed, for life, Keeper of the Rolls in Berkshire.
In 1552 the Bishop of Ely was instructed to make him Sargeant at Law, under penalty of £1000.
Robert married widow Cecily Unton in 1553, and acquired the manor of Mynster Lovell, Oxford.
By 1573, he was Surveyor of the Court of Wards and Liveries, and Inner Temple Parliaments were held before him. Thomas Gawen, probably his nephew, was admitted into his chamber in the Figtree Court.
After he died in 1581, aged 84, his house at the Inner Temple, known as the Master of the Temples Lodging, was sold for £125. He was buried at Exton Church, Rutlandshire, where there is a large coloured marble monument, with long Latin inscription.
His will included further dwelling houses in Fleet Street, London, in Middlesex, and Berkshire.
He left £1000 to his "cousin" ffrancis, son of the second Sir William, £10 to ffrancis’s mother Lady Ann Kellwaye, £10 to godson Edward Button, one of his best horses to Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas Bromley. Another bequest went to his "nephew" Thomas, son of William Calwey esquire.
"Cousin" could have a broad family meaning at that time, but nephew was more defined. Presumably he had a brother, or nephew, William. The wording seems to suggest Thomas, son of William of Stalbridge, but this relationship does not match either.
The residue of many bequests went to his daughter Anne Harrington. Her husband John, whom she married in 1572, was created Baron Harrington of Exton, Rutland in 1613.
Sir James Harrington made a settlement of Burley and other manors to his son John on the occasion of the wedding. Burleigh Hall is well known today. Anne died in 1620.
It is of note that although Robert Keilway was a man of considerable learning and position, his name, which appears in a great number of records, was spelt a great number of different ways, sometimes in the same document. But very differently from either Dorset family.
It is also strange that, if his father was the brother of Sir John Cayleway, and he the nephew, that he was not referred to in any of the Heraldic Pedigrees. Pedigrees which were determined during his lifetime.
With his father Robert presumably born around 1470, he could however have been descended from an earlier “younger” son.
Other Roberts died in 1558, and in 1614.
THE SECOND SIR WILLIAM
Sir John’s son William, who would have been born about 1495, attended the Court of King Henry VIII and was a member of his personal bodyguard. He married Ann, daughter of William Hawlways of Winchester. Hawlways, or Holloways, seem to have settled at Rockbourne, and numerically at least, dominated the village later. The two names are very similar, but the Holloways are considered to be a separate family.
In 1544 William and Ann held the manor of Buckland, north of Lymington. He was appointed Commissioner of the Peace in Dorset in 1547, and was granted property in Butterwike, Dorset, late of Sherborne Monastery, in 1548.
William Kellaway, knight, was selected Sheriff of Hampshire in 1552.
It is unlikely there were two Sir Williams at this time, although there was a William who had a shop in Shaftsbury in 1549, but William Kellaway was made a Knight Bachelor by Queen Mary the day after her Coronation in 1553. This could have been a second knighthood, as a special honour.
Mary was a Catholic Queen, and there must be an assumption that William was one of her supporters.
The religious question was further complicated by William later being appointed, by Protestant Queen Elizabeth, in 1562 to take charge of Portsmouth. However this would have been a military appointment, rather than relating to any position at Court.
When Sir William died in 1569, he left sons Francis, John, Edward, Ambrose, and a late Charles. Daughters Sybill, Elizabeth and Mary.
The second family of Sir John had produced four sons.
The eldest, Gyles was captain of the Galleass “The George of Ditsam” from Portsmouth. He was evidently responsible for the capture of a Spanish barque in 1545 but, as England was not at that time at war with Spain, had to give it back. He later received considerable wealth from young King Edward VI.
A Galleass was a large oared vessel with lateen sails, more commonly seen in the Mediterranean, and it seems a little out of context in English waters, unless it had itself been captured earlier, perhaps from the French or Spanish.
The English were by this time becoming more aggressive at sea.
With other properties in Devon, Gyles, who married Joan Prideaux at Rockbourne and had a son Hugh there about 1530, lived for a time at Stroude, Dorset. In 1548-9 he was granted the Chapel of Kingston Russell, a Chapel at Chilfrome, and the Leper Hospital at Bridport. In 1550 he came into possession of the buildings of the Priory of the Blessed Mary Magdalene at Bridport, where the Hospital is today an Almshouse.
It is very apparent that these Dorset buildings were acquired with some assistance from his cousin Robert.
John, who had a son William at Rockbourne in 1567, settled on the Isle of Wight, owning property at Godshill. He may have been the progenitor of later families on the Island.
A John Callaway had “le tyle house” at Levisham, Kent in 1554, although this could have been another John.
Henry was captain over 147 men, and served on the Isle of Wight in 1545. He appears however to have settled at Berry Pomeroy, near Totnes, Devon, and in 1548 was part owner of buildings of the Holy Cross at Ilminster, Somerset. The buildings became the Free Grammar School, a preparatory school for Eton.
The reference to Eton suggests a later family connection with the farm of Heagh at Piddlehinton, which in the 1600s was apparently under lease from Eton College.
It is not known exactly when the property came to be leased to the family.
In 1550 Henry Kaylewaye covenanted that Giles Kayleway and William Leonarde should cede all interests in two Chantry Houses, Mody’s Place and Rypps Mill, to John Preston and others; the Ilminster Free Grammar School. Again the involvement of Robert is evident.
Of George there seems no mention. He may have lived in Ilminster.
Both Henry and George however were apparently killed in France, when England lost Calais and the last possessions there.
The homes of these four men, in Dorset, the Isle of Wight, Devon, and Somerset, may also give some clues to descendants in these parts, although there is no confirmed record of either Henry or George having descendants.
The15 year old Protestant King Edward VI died of tuberculosis in 1553, and was succeeded by his older, Catholic half sister, Mary.
Queen Mary married Philip, the son of Catholic King Charles V of Spain and, although he was rarely in England, a period of persecution of English Protestants began.
Chancellor reached Russia in the first attempt to find the North East Passage to the East, but the next five years were not a happy time for England.
London had a population of 200,000 when Mary died in 1558, and Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne.
Calais, the last English possession in France, fell to the Duc de Guise.
Huguenot massacres began in France, resulting in Civil Wars, and further massacres by de Guise.
The first Huguenot refugees arrived in England.
Elizabeth condemned African slavery, but the English became involved.
English sailors, or privateers, extended their attacks on Spanish shipping, particularly the treasure ships from Central America. Francis Drake rounded the Straits of Magellan, ravaged the Spanish Pacific Coast of South America, and completed his circumnavigation of the world in 1580.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh founded the first, but shortlived, English Colony on Roanoke Island, named Virginia, in 1581.
Mary Queen of Scots had claimed the English throne, and was imprisoned. Later, due to discovered treasonable Catholic activities to gain the throne, she was executed by Elizabeth in 1587.
Philip, now King Philip II of Spain, determined to invade England, but had his first invasion fleet destroyed in Cadiz Harbour by Drake and his fire ships.
In 1588 a fleet, with 30,000 men under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, finally set sail.
It was this time destroyed by a combination of better English ships, gunnery, tactics, which again included the use of fire ships, and the “English” weather.
Forced to continue sailing right around the British Isles, even the survivors who landed on the Irish coast were killed by the Irish.
Marking virtually the end of Spain as a naval power, it would be the English, and for a time the Dutch, after they shed themselves of their Spanish yoke, who would take over dominance of the seas.
Francis/ ffrancis, the eldest son of Sir William, born probably about 1525 into a family of considerable importance, apparently had his own problems.
He was pardoned in 1554 for breaking into a house, and whatever may have happened afterwards, matters got worse in his later life.
He married first Ann Weston, presumably a Dorset Weston, then Frances, the daughter of Sir John Rogers, as her fourth husband. The marriage possibly arranged in an effort to stabilise him.
In those times Frances would have been a remarkable woman. She had five husbands in all. The third was Mathew Evans, Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Francis had three children, Anne, who married George Lawrence, Alice who married a Babbington, and Thomas.
In 1567 Francis and his parents gave up the manors of Vernhams Dean and Botes. Three years later his son Thomas gave up his rights to the premises. Francis’s father Sir William gave the manor of Rockborne to grandson Thomas, probably to endeavour to secure its future within the family, but there were disputes between father and son, and the manor became heavily mortgaged. Francis was imprisoned in the Fleet for actions against Sir Anthony Ashley, Clerk of the Privy Council, and the mortgagor.
By 1598 Thomas was “utterlie lame and a creeple”, with his father refusing to support him, despite being ordered to do so by the Privy Council.
Francis’s brothers Edward and Ambrose were also involved in the matter, but Francis died in 1601, seized of the manor. The result was the loss of Rockbourne manor, with its sale to Sir John Cooper in 1608.
Poor Thomas Keylwaye was to have real need for St Giles. He had married Ann More at Rockborne in 1576. His daughter Loue was baptised the same year, while three years later his baby daughter Ann died there. He appears to have died in 1606. Loue was buried at Rockborne in 1631.
It is not clear what position Francis’s brother John held in the family, or exactly where he lived, but he had a son William at Rockbourne in 1567.
John Keylewaye, gentleman, was buried at Rockborne in 1586.
Edward may have acquired an Oxfordshire prebend in 1547, which was exchanged in 1550 for lands in Devon and Somerset, although he may have been a minor at the time.
Ambrose matriculated at Queens College Cambridge in 1553. He married widow Katherine White, and was buried at Rockborne in 1582, shortly before his mother, Ann.
It is not known if there were any children.
Charles Callaway/Kellaway of Rockbourne married Mary Lull at Southwark in 1599, but died in 1605.
A late marriage, their children were Jacob, born about 1600, and Elizabeth, who married Sir Henry Dawtry in 1630. His son Charles was born postumously in 1606.
Charles himself was evidently a late son of Sir William. Although not recorded in the Pedigrees, nor in the Parish Register, there is no suggestion of illegitimacy.
Sybill married 18 year old George Thorpe about 1556, Sir William having been granted the custody of George at marriage. Elizabeth married William Skilling of Draycott Wiltshire about 1560, and later John Crooke. Mary married William Button of Alton about 1570.
Ann married John Aucher, with a suggestion that their daughter Joan married Sir Humphrey Gilbert.
However it appears it was the “heiress” Anne Aucher, possibly as a widow, who married Sir Humphrey in 1570, suggesting that there was some confusion in names, as well as being too early for her daughter.
Sir Humphrey, a noted soldier and explorer, was the half brother of Sir Walter Raleigh, cousin of Sir Francis Drake. Also a Privateer, he joined Martin Frobisher in seeking the North-West Passage, and was involved with founding English Colonies in the Americas.
During the times of William of Sherborne, the Rockbourne knights, and their descendants, John Kalleway of Stoford (Dolton) had a son Thomas, born about 1435, according to the Devon Pedigrees. Thomas and his wife Joan had their son Thomas about 1465, and from his marriage to Ann Coppleston of Somerset, their sons Richard and Phillipe could have been born about 1490. These dates are however based upon supposition, as there are few other recorded events to substantiate them.
The fact that the latter Thomas, and his grandfather Thomas, both had wives named Joan, may be further reasons why there is so much confusion over whether William or Thomas married Joan Barrett, and from which place they came. There seemed to be a predominance of wives in all the families named Joan.
Phillipe Kelloway married Alice Yeo of Heaton, and their family, born around 1520, included William, Thomas, Robart, Mary, Jonne and Elizabeth. William used the Stoford name, later Stafford, and moved to Ottery St Mary. Thomas married Agnes, and had two sons. He also took the name Stafford and moved to Dowland, near Dolton. Robart married Elizabeth Menwhenyke of Cornwall, and their family, born around 1550, included Alice, Joane, Thomas, John, Robart, and William.
Phillipe’s daughter, Jone married Richard Pryde of Horwell. In 1540, Elizabeth Kellaway married Anthony Berry at Braunton.
John married Margery Arscott of Dunesland, and while they seem to have remained at Stowford, their sons also used the name Stafford. Robart had four sons, William three.
Virtually all the senior family changed their name to Stafford, and it seems that only the descendants of Robart or William might have retained the name Kelloway. However it is noteworthy that the Christian names match those of the Dorset family. Perhaps they were the popular names of the period, but what is not sure is exactly how closely related these families were by that time.
JOHN OF COLYTON/CULLOMPTON
An interesting listing from the Cornwall Heraldic Pedigrees was John Kellaway of Colyton and Cullompton, in Devon.
He is referred to as the son of Hugh Kayleway. In 1420 a Hugh Calowe had been recorded at Broadwoodkelly in Devon, while in 1453 Hugh and John Cayleway were to be delivered of Exeter Gaol. If brothers, the earlier Hugh was possibly his grandfather, or great uncle.
Colyton was a home of the Stowford family, while Cullompton was said to have been in the family from as far back as the 12th Century. It has been assumed that John belonged to the Stowford family, although the connection may more directly have been through Mokesbeare, which is very close to Cullompton.
While he also associated with the apparently more active Sherborne families.
Interestingly there is another Stafford Barton nearby, also a Stoford Water, placenames that surely relate to the earlier Stafford Barton and Stowford, further west.
A very wealthy “merchant of the staple”, when he died on 24 February 1530/1, John had properties in Devon, Dorset, Hampshire and Cornwall; and business at least, in Calais.
He had an interest in the manor of Compton Paunscefote, and had property in Broadwoodkelly, Devon.
John left gold and silver chalices to monastic orders, and was said to be remembered by the stained glass window in St Catherin’s Chapel, Sherborne Abbey, thereby reinforcing his connection with the Dorset families. However the COA however has a “star” indicating the arms related to a third son, which he seems unlikely to have been. It may belong to William and Joan's third son Thomas, who lived in Sherborne.
John's first wife was Elizabeth, but he later married Jane the daughter of John Tredruffe Tregarthin of Bremwell, Cornwall. They had “much issue”, possibly 14 children, and the survivors were all daughters.
His 1530/1 Inquisition Post Mortem records his heir as his son George, aged 6, but daughters Marye the elder, Anne, Elizabeth, Mary the younger, Katheryne, Florence and Agnes, were all to benefit at their marriages. Simon Kayleway, cousin and servant, was also to benefit.
Sadly George did not survive, and John's daughters became sought after heiresses.
John Kelway had tenure of Cullompton Mills in 1493, and may have married Jane rather late in life, as his widow later married John Wadham of Catherston, Dorset, and Merrifield in Ilton, Somerset. She died “a virtuous and ancient gentlewoman, descended of the ancient house of the Plantagents”, in Branscombe, Dorset, in 1583.
This was 53 years after the death of John, and Jane, apparently born around 1495-1500 herself, must have been about 85.
A remarkable woman, Jane/Joan apparently had as many as 20 children, including a further 6 to John Wadham. John’s coat of arms, on Jane’s unusual and unique memorial at Branscombe Church, includes two quarterings of the Kelway arms, suggesting that his family had in fact intermarried earlier. There is no available evidence, but these quarterings may indicate earlier association between the Stowford, and Wiltshire families.
From a 1548 record, three mills in Cullompton, Devon, were to revert to Henry Slade, subsequent to the death of Elizabeth Kellaway in 1511, presumably John's first wife.
Perhaps indicating the source of some of his wealth.
Daughter Agnes married Henricus Lyte de Lytes Caryborne, nephew of the earlier “Black Will” Lyte, who had earlier married Dorothy, daughter of Sir John Caleway. She was buried at Charlton in 1564.
The family arms are seen at the manor of Lytes Cary at Somerton.
One Mary married William Cooke of Thorne/Trerice, the other Thomas Codrington. The memorial in Bristol Cathedral of their grandson Sir Robert Codrington, includes the Kellaway arms. Anne who married William Harewood of South Moulton, was called an heiress, as was Florence who married Richard Grenville of Penheale about 1554. Richard was not however the Sir Richard Grenville of the Revenge, who died in the famous single-handed battle against much of the Spanish Fleet in 1591.
Another Agnes, daughter of a John, had married John Drake of Otterton, Devon. John was referred to in the will of John of Cullompton, and was related to Sir Francis Drake.
The Spanish Armada would arrive in 1588.
A number of other family references were recorded, which do not obviously relate to any particular branch.
In 1468 Catherin Kelloway, the daughter of John, had married Nicholas Trebartha. Although in Cornwall, her father could have been from the Devon family.
About 1525 Joanne the heiress daughter of John Callwaye, possibly John of Cullompton, married John Tubb of Trengoff in Warleggan Cornwall.
In 1526 Dame Elizabeth Caylewaye of Hutton, Somerset, left goods to her daughter Mary and son in law Thomas Payne. It is not clear who Elizabeth was, but she was possibly the second wife of Sir John.
In 1527 Annes Kaylway, servant to Elizabeth FitzJames, received clothing and money from her will.
John Calowe, the Younger, was Constable in Taunton in 1537 and 1547, and was an overseer of the will of John Pope in 1549. Simon Kelewaye was an executor in the will of Lewes Pope of Taunton in 1557. Simon was presumably the cousin of John of Colyton/Cullompton. Colyton is close to Taunton.
Alse, daughter of William Kelleway, was baptised at Sturminster Marshall, between Blandford Forum and Poole, in Dorset in 1565. Joane Kelleway married Thomas Chesman there in 1571. Evidently sisters, they may have been the daughters of William Kellaway of Stalbridge, although there were other Williams at Marnhull and Dewlish at least.
DORSET IN THE 1500S
During the 1500s, the Dorset families were still mainly gathered around the old homes in the north of the County: Stalbridge, Sherborne, Sutton Bingham, Marnhull, and in the east, the Gussages. While there was another group who appeared around Dewlish.
They would slowly spread south, closer to the coast and seaports.
Unfortunately, while there were now more family references due to the new Parish Registers after 1538, and they now include the numerous members of the “lesser” families, the records that survive are not complete in number and detail, and the references are difficult to relate. They do though indicate the family locations of the 1500s, and some, the families to follow.
Early in the 1500s, in the north, there were Dorset families established at least in Marnhull, Gillingham, Buckhorn Weston and Nether Compton, places where the Clarke, George and Kaynell aliases appeared. Buckhorn Weston may have had some connection with Stalbridge and the Westons.
At Nether Compton, between Yeovil and Sherborne, near Stoford, Rector John Keyllwaye alias Clarke married Agnes Fathers in 1581. Their family were, John, Robert, Mary, Nicholas, Agnes, Thomas and Christine, born between 1582 and 1594. Familiar names, and a Nicholas.
Born perhaps c1550, John was rector at Nether Compton from 1579, until his death in 1607. His son Thomas was Rector there after his death.
John le Calewe had lived at Stalbridge Weston in the early 1300s. His brother Thomas had property there and at Marnhull only 2-3 km away. John also had a substantial property at Gussage All Saints.
There were seemingly no family references at Stalbridge Weston in the 1500s, where the family may have been using the name Weston for some time.
Family members were however still evident at Sherborne, the senior family home in the 1400s.
Also at Shaftsbury, Sturminster Marshall, Lydlinch, and Longburton.
At Sherborne family records began with the earliest Registers, with three Callway and a Kelwey recorded between 1538 and 1540. In 1541 Robertus Callwaye was born, in 1542 Robert Callwe.
Constantia Keylewaye married Richard Goodlin in 1543, while John Keylewey died in 1550, Johes Keyleway in 1545, John Keleway in 1550, Constans Keyleway in 1557. The Keyleway spelling perhaps suggesting members of a senior family.
Apart from the birth of Nicholas Calway in 1564, otherwise the following BMD records were Callows. While, as in other Parish Registers the Callows were probably members of the family, there were few parents given for births, no ages for deaths, and it is difficult to determine relationships.
Presumably born about 1580, Walter Kellwaye married Margaret Stoite in 1607, having children Margaret in 1608, Jone in 1609. There were no Walters recorded there later, although Walter Kellaway had a daughter Jentell in London in 1612. Perhaps the same man.
In another of the earliest reference after the Registers began, in 1539, John Kellway had a son Robert at Sandford Orcas, just north of Yeovil and Sherborne, who sadly died shortly afterwards.
At Lillington, Robert and Katherine Kellaway, presumably descendants of the earlier Robert and John, and members of the senior family, had a son John in 1608.
At Lydlinch John Keylwaye married Alice Farre in 1568. Their daughter Mary was born in 1570, son Nycholas in 1575. Thomas Keylwaye married Edith Nele in 1573. Joane Keylway was born in 1581, John died in 1582. Children Thomas Robert and Grace were born to Thomas between 1584-1591.
Nycholas Keylewaye married Ancrete Parsons in 1599.
At Charminster, merchant Nicholas Kellaway, who seems to have had interests in a number of places, including Wyke Regis, was apparently living at nearby Forston between 1570 and his death in 1592.
His descendants were later to spread throughout Dorset.
At Milborne St Andrew, and Milton Abbas, perhaps also Mappowder, possible descendants of younger sons of the later Sherborne William's two families, also heavily involved in business, may have lived at or near Dewlish Manor.
At Gillingham, 10km north of Marnhull, Robert Kylwaye was there in 1539, John Kelway in 1545. Margaret the wife of Thomas Kalleway died in 1573. William Kayleway married Johannah Burdon in 1579, while William Kaylway and his son John died later in 1579.
Richard Chelway married Christine Stacie at Mapperton in 1571.
Here also “clerk” George and Agnes Kayleway had daughters Maria and Rachel between 1579 and 1585. Is it possible it was his father, George of Marnhull, who began the series of alias Clarke, and alias Georges?
Christopher Kelwaye, alias George, the son of Richard Kelwaye of Chard married Johanne Kyrtton there in 1610. George Kayleway married Joanna Bowringe in 1601, and their son John was born in 1602.
The Georges, Clarkes, and their aliases would continue afterwards.
Clerk Edmund Keleway, alias Clarke, was born in Buckhorne Weston about 1560-70. Possibly an origin of an occupational alias, he and wife Dorothy had children Nicholas, William, George, Jone, all alias Clarke, and Dorothy who married John Read. Grandchildren Edmund and Cyril were also alias Clarke. John Keleway alias Clarke, married Joane Abbat at Horsington in 1603. Sons John and Nicholas were born in 1603-05, although Nicholas died.
At Shaftsbury Alice Kelwaye died in 1584. John Kilwaye married Aves Joice in 1605, although she died three years later. Johlin Kelwaye married Charles Robartes in 1607.
At Gussage All Saints, another family village from at least the early 1300s, Robert Kelway married Maude Homer in 1563, and had a son Thomas in 1566.
THE DEWLISH MYSTERY
The Dorset Lay Subsidy and Muster Rolls of 1525 and 1545, give an indication of where some families were living during that time. However they include names, some with unusual spellings, and locations that are not referred to elsewhere.
They do not seem to entirely match either the principal Dorset family, nor that of the Rockbourne knights. The most likely conclusion therefore seems to be that they may be descended from the younger sons of William, from his two marriages, to Joan Barrett and the Stantner lady.
Moris, William, Peter or the second Thomas, born perhaps between 1470-1480, must have had descendants, yet there is little evidence of them in following years.
Perhaps one or two were from the Rockbourne family.
A number of family members were recorded in the Dorset Lay Subsidy Rolls of 1525 and 1545, particularly at Dewlish, and Milborne St Andrew, 2km away. And at Milton Abbas.
The Dewlish men apparently lived, or were based, at Develysche Manor, but why they were recorded there remains obscure. Normally those living at a manorhouse could be expected to be the senior members of the family, but some of the names are not mentioned elsewhere.
Dewlish is however close to Melcombe Bingham, and it is possible there was another family connection. Bingham family members can today have similar DNA.
Edward Kayleway and John Kelway were at Dewlish and Milborne St Andrew in 1525, Richard Kaylway at Milborne. Also at Dewlish, and apparently the wealthiest, was Robert Kayle.
In 1542/5 Edward was only listed at Milborne, John though was apparently at both, but with name spellings of Kaylow and Callowe. Richard Caylewey or Kayleway was at Milborne.
Also at Dewlish in 1542/5 were Robert Keyle and Thomas Cayle/Kaylle. Robert may have died before 1545, as widow Jane took his place in 1545.
John was also at Wyke Regis between 1525 and 1545.
Most were taxed for goods, rather than land, indicating they were in business, rather than property holders.
John was recorded twice, suggesting there may have been two of them, while Robert, Richard, and Thomas were also on the 1545 Muster Rolls.
Who they were, and why such a variety of spellings at the same location, the same time, is a mystery. Perhaps they came from different families, as distant cousins, or was the variation only a whim of the clerk?
It seems likely the unusual spellings represented “younger” families from an earlier time.
A young Thomas, aged 14, was said to have gone from Dewlish to the Isle of Wight about 1556, to become the forebear of families there. Sir John's son John may have already been on the island at that time.
There is seemingly no later reference to Dewlish or the manor, with regard to the family, so for some reason they seem to have moved. Mary, Agnes, Ellener, John, and George Kellwaye were born at nearby Milborne St Andrew between 1565-1575. William Kellway produced sons, Thomas, Henry, and Thomas, there between 1583 and 1594. Dewlish and Milborne are also close to Piddlehinton and Puddletown.
Elenor Kellaway had a son Robert at Milborne St Andrew in 1584, while Mary Kellwaye married Woolstone Gray there in 1586. Agnes Kellwaye married John Palmer the same month in 1586.
Arthur Kellaway was born there in 1588.
John Kellway/Keylwaye married Alice Ayers in 1595, and had children, daughters Christian, Mary, Agnes, son Thomas, between 1599-1603. Young Thomas died in 1613.
John may have married Christian in 1605, and their children were Alice, Mary, John and Edmund. He died in 1620.
George Keyleway married Avis/Ann Roberts in 1601. Their children, William and Eve, were born 1601-2.
Peter Keyleway/Cayleway, presumably the son of William by his second wife, was recorded on the Muster Rolls at Mappowder in 1542, and at Milton Abbas, 3km from Dewlish at this time one of the largest towns in Dorset, in 1545. Peter had married widow Alys Bihop, but again there is no later reference to any descendants.
Milton Abbey was granted to Sir John Tregonwell, as reward for his work as the agent for King Henry VIII with the Disolutions. He married Elizabeth the daughter of Sir John Cayleway, and widow of Robert Martyn of nearby Athelhampton. Our family arms are found throughout Milton Abbey Hall, as well as Athelhampton, and it is clear that the families were close when Peter moved there between 1539 and 1545.
Milton Abbas also exhibits arms for the Bingham, Romsey, Barrett, Camel, Lyte, and Tregonwell families.
All of them family connections from the 1400-1500s.
Not specifically part of the Dewlish Mystery, Peter was also recorded at Clifton Maybank, near Bradford Abbas, in the 1524-5 Lay Subsidies, when another family member William was at Bradford Abbas.
His family seem to have moved to Bradford Abbas, from the 1543-5 Subsidies, when we see Nicholas and John, with the presumed wife of William, Joan. Merchant Nicholas was prominent in several locations.
Bradford Abbas is not recorded again until the much later Monmouth Rebellion, when Joseph Kellaway was executed.
Peter and Richard were names later recorded on the Isle of Wight, and it is possible that, in addition to Thomas, they, or their descendants, had lived there.
Peter was an unusual family name, and the thought remains that 100 years later a Peter Callaway, perhaps from Dorset, sailed to the American Colonies.
Only 3km from Stalbridge, is the small, but apparently busy village of Marnhull. And more mysteries.
Thomas le Calewe, presumed brother of John le Calewe, had property there in 1327 and 1332.
William Kelway, thought to be the son of William and Joan Barrett, produced his Marnhull will in 1492.
In it was mention of Thomas, perhaps his brother, but no named descendants.
It seems therefore William's property may have passed to his half brother, Thomas, who would have become the heir to the family estates in Dorset and Wiltshire.. .
Later records indicate there was a strong family presence in Marnhull, perhaps from an older family, perhaps descendants of William's younger brother Thomas. However some unusual name spellings, and two new aliases, were to appear, suggesting other families.
In the 1525 Lay Subsidy, we have two Kaynells, John and William, and two Clerkes, William and George, all apparently reasonably well off.
In 1543/4, there was Thomas Kaynell and widow Agnes Kaynell. Six Kayl(e)weys, William, George, Nicholas (2x), John, and Thomas. These latter, except George and Nicholas, match those in the senior Dorset family.
George could possibly have been the youngest son of Sir John, although he was said to have died in France about that time.
Nicholas was also a popular name in Marnhull, with both the George and Clarke families. Quite why is obscure, but it was seen throughout Dorset, and becomes of interest later with regard to the family of Nicholas of Forston and Charminster.
In the 1598 Marnhull Lay Subsidy we have Alice Kailwaye, with a small property, William Kaylway, and John Keilwaye, with goods. No Clarkes or Kaynells.
An unusually large number of early Parish Register family records are available for Marnhull from the 1560s, and these include both Kellwaies, and the two aliases, George, and Clarke.
Clarke was an occupational alias, which would continue for many more years. It seems likely that a family member had, perhaps in the 1400s, been a clerk. And his descendants continued in the profession.
George though seems unusual, and the only explanation here seems to be that the William and George Clerke of 1525 became the William and George Kaylwey of 1543. While George, perhaps for business reasons, came to be used as a surname for one alias family by 1560.
By the 1600s, and for some time afterwards, we have three families in Marnhull, the Kelwaies, and Kelwaies with Clarke and George aliases. The alias being used either way.
In 1600 we have a third, with Thomas Kellwaie alias Keinell introducing the Kaynell alias to the village.
At Buckhorn Weston 10km to the north of Marnhull, Edmund and Dorothy Keleway alias Clarke, produced a family, Nicholas, William, George, Jone and Dorothy, from around 1595.
Including the Weston name, the village could have been another old family location.
Until the Dissolution, Tewkesbury Abbey in Gloucestershire had appointed the rector at St Nicholas Ashmore, between Shaftsbury and Sixpenny Handley.
In 1588 Roger Keyllwaye was patron there, while William Clark was the rector. By 1622 however Roger Kayleway was patron, John Kayleway, alias Clarke, the rector. An unusual situation, there seemed little reason for the presence of these men, other than being the same family, at the same time.
There had been earlier family associations, with Hawisa and the Earl of Gloucester, the parish being part of the “Honour of Gloucester”, The Despensers, Paulets and the Tegonwells. But apart from the location being close to Dorset family properties in the 1300s, there is no record of any local ownership or tenancies.
By 1601, William Clark, alias Keylway was at Longburton. And the Clark alias was to spread thoughout Dorset, as either Clark/e alias Kellaway, or Kellaway alias Clarke.
WILTSHIRE IN THE 1500S
Wiltshire, due to the earlier history, remains perhaps the most interesting of the other Counties.
At Kayleways/Cayleweys manor, John de Kayleways had been the last family Patron of St Giles Church, being replaced in 1429 consecutively by, first The Bishop, then Robert Russell, Elizabeth Russell, and John Bagod, knight.
There would be no further connection with the family, apart perhaps from the appointment of Robert Kaynell as Rector of St Giles Kellaways between 1450-62.
The Kaynells would later be associated with our family in Dorset in the 1500s, apparently as the same family, while one at least was referred to with an alias.
In 1526 however first Henry, then William and Robert, Long, began a 300 year succession of Long family Patrons of St Giles. Long family historians state that their family had lived there from the late 1400s, perhaps originally as tenants of John Bagod.
Another record has Edm/Edw Longe de Kelwayes marrying Susan Snell, perhaps around 1550. She later married Hugh Barrett of Titherton Lucas.
Interesting references, because here we have another family, the Longs, using the location name “de Kelwayes”. Tytherton Lucas adjoined Kellaways, was perhaps originally the second “knights fee”, while Joan Barrett had not very long before married William Kellway of Sherborne Dorset.
At Shrewton in the Salisbury Plains, John Kelloway had a son John in 1598.
John Kelloway, or Longe, presumably that son, had a daughter in 1621, sons Johannes, Robertus and Georgius between 1624 and 1629. His son was also John Kelloway or Longe in 1660. Their descendants were called Kelloway by 1818.
But did they carry Long or Kellaway DNA?
We do not know of any other connections but, today in DNA, some members of the Long family have strong similarity to one of our Callaway/Kellaway branches.
Both also have DNA similar to members of the Webb family. William Webbe, alias Kellowe, was mayor of Salisbury Wiltshire several times from 1496, just before the two Robert Keilways.
Members of the Lucas family, possibly of Tytherton Lucas, also seem to be DNA related.
Members of the Weston and Bingham families from Dorset, also have DNA similarities with a Dorset branch of our Kellaway/Callaway family.
At Westbury, Daniell Callawaye married Editha Callawaye in 1566, and their son Johannes was born in 1567. Margery Calaway married Zabulon Biggwood in 1579. And Richardus Callaway married Alicia Marshman in 1611.
At Melksham, not far from Chippenham, Robert Keyleway had sons Robert, Thomas and William, a daughter Frances, between c1600 and 1606, when he died. He may have been a descendant of Robert of Stalbridge.
At Corsham, also near Chippenham, William Callaway had a son John in 1564, John Callaway a daughter Jane the same year.
At Winterbourne Dauntsey, close to Salisbury, John Calleway/Kellway had children, Lewis, Maude, John, John, Agnes and Edmund, between 1594-1613.
In Salisbury, the home of the Robert Keilways and Webbs at the beginning of the 1500s, at the church of St Edmund, Robert Kelleway, presumably a relative of the Keilway family, had a daughter Frauncis baptised in 1606. Robert was apparently born around 1580.
At St Thomas, Salisbury, Jasper Kelloway, born about 1610, was to marry Honora, and their son Jasper would be born in 1638.
Jasper is an unusual family name, but was to appear later with a son Jasper baptised at St Georges Chapel, New Windsor Castle in 1668, where Thomas Kelway/Kelleway, perhaps his uncle, was Deans Curate and Minor Canon.
At Wilton by Salisbury, Jacabus Kelleway was born in 1571.
John Kelloway had sons named Robert in 1583 and 1585. Edward Kellewaie sons Wilmot and Edward in 1590 and 1592. While Robert Calewaie, presumably the earlier Robert, a son Thomas in1607.
At Downton, south of Salisbury, where Robert Kellaway, son of Thomas, previously had property, John Kellway married Sibell Pickernell in 1613. William Kellway married Joan Gantlett there in 1616.
Bapton and Whitparish lie on opposite sides of Salisbury. The two properties of Robert Kellaway, son of Thomas, grandson of William and Joan Barrett, were subject to considerable dispute. They passed to Robert's son John, who also acquired Fisherton Anger near Warminster.
He was living at Bapton in 1545, before he died in 1568.
John had a son Henry, daughters Philip and Elizabeth. Henry is not mentioned in later available Wiltshire records, so may have returned to Lillington in Dorset. Presumed son Robert and his son Robert sold the Bapton property to Sir Edward Wardour in 1625.
Whitparish was however still referred to in the Heraldic Pedigrees of the 15-1600s, as the family home.
At Warminster, in 1577 Thomas Calloway married Jone Allin in 1577. John Kellaway married Joanne Miles in 1597. Caroline Calloway, the daughter of John Kellaway was born in 1614. And in 1635 Frances Kellaway married Nicholas Webb, another connection with the Webb family.
By 1600 it seems therefore that most of the Wiltshire families, may have been descended from the Salisbury branch, rather than the, by then, senior Dorset branch, who may have moved to London.
SOMERSET IN THE 1500S
While there appears little recorded of the Somerset families until the mid 1500s, Somerset is a large County, and the available Parish Registers from 1539 indicate there were a considerable number of families living there.
Although the County boundaries have minimal relevance, and Somerset is very close to family homes around Sherborne and Stalbridge in Dorset, Wellington could be considered an early centre.
There were a number of families presumably descended from the earlier families of the late 1300-1400s.
Richard Callway/Kelwaye/Calway of Wellington was witness to the wills of William Jefforde/Gifford, Agnes Alwey/Calewy, and Henry Jefforde, between 1557 and 1580.
In 1557 he had been called Richard Callway alias Rutter – yet another alias, which later became of interest.
In 1582 he prepared his own will, with wife Isabell his relict and executor.
Their children were Peter, William, Ann, Johan, Alice, Grace, and Ann, born presumably between 1550 and 1565. Johan married John Perrye.
Peter (c1540–1622), married Ann Tucker, and their recorded children were Robert the elder, and Bartholomew. Robert the elder (c1565-1644) married Bridget, and their children, Thomas, Robert, Thomasine and Edward, were born between 1590-1600.
Thomas would marry Elizabeth. Robert, Grace Perry.
Peter Caleway, possibly another son of the earlier Peter, married Joan Berry/Perry, and their children were Faite/Faith, William, Thomas, Stephen and Agnes, born between 1596 and 1607.
Three Giles recorded at Charleton Musgrove in the late 1500s may have been descendants of Sir John's son Gyles, who had married Joan Prideaux at Rockbourne about 1530, where they had a son Hugh.
Giles otherwise was an unusual name in the family.
Alexander and Elizabeth Kellwye were born in 1564 and 1566. However churchwarden Giles Kellwye produced children, John, Edward, James, Giles, William and Nichlas between 1569-79. Possibly his brother, John Kellwye produced children, Peter, Giles, Joa, another son, John, Joan, Marie, Humpherie, Christia, Edward, Elizabeth, Giles, Peter who died the next year, and Katherine, between 1574-95.
As a churchwarden, and with several familiarly named children, could the first Giles have been Sir John's grandson?
In Baltonsborough, another of the first Parish Registers available, Thomas Callowe had a son John in 1539. Thomas died in 1559.
There were two John Callowes. The first married Alice Mathews in 1553, the second, presumably Thomas's son, married Johanne Clark in 1566. Their children were Martin, Thomas, Christian, Johann and Margery, born between 1567 and 1582.
Robert Killwye married Edith Colborne in 1573. Sons named Richard were baptised in 1584 and 1589. John Killwye, possibly an earlier son, married Jeane Rogers in 1592.
A variety of spellings.
At Milverton, Myles Kyllwye and Thomas Caille, both died in 1588.
At Wilverscombe, Alice the daughter of Richard Callow was baptised in 1589.
At Orchard Portman, Robert Calway's daughters Thomasine and Catherine, in 1544 and 1546, William Calway's children James and Joane in 1570 and 1579.
At Wellow, born perhaps about 1520, Walter Kellwaye was Churchwarden in 1561.
His children were Walter, Richard, Robert, William, Thomas, Nicholas and Anthony, born about 1550/1565. Son Walter married Ellinor, and died in 1618.
John Calwaye's children Susan and John were baptised in 1561 and 1566.
At Bridgewater, Adam Callaway was baptised in 1597,
Robert Calway was Churchwarden at Bishops Lydiard between 1595-1613.
At Butleigh, William Cullow had a daughter Joan about 1540.
Thomas Keleway, Dorothea in 1584. Presumably his brother, John Keleway, married Joane Callow in 1581. Their children were Elizabeth, George, Dorothie, John, Mathew, Thomas, Margaret and Joanna, born between 1584 and 1600.
Edmund Callowe married Rabodya Colmer in 1590. Their children were Thomas 1590 and 1592, Jane 1594, Alexander, Elizabeth, Edmund and Henry, born between 1590 and 1609.
At Long Sutton, William Callow (c1565-1648), had daughters Joane and Christian between 1586-1590.
At Stoke St Gregory, Peter Kelway married Joan Every in 1596, and they had children Fate/Faith, William, Thomas, and Agnes, between 1596 and 1607.
William Kellaway had a child at Street in 1586.
At Martock, John Callwaie produced sons John and Thomas in 1558 and 1562. John Callowe Jnr, children Thomas and Alice in 1565 and 1567. Presumably not father and son, they could be the same John.
At Barton St David, Richard Calewaye (c1500-1543), married Isabell, and their children were Matthew, John, William, George, Agnes, and Alice, born presumably between 1525 and 1540. Their son William, by his 1612 will, married Joan, and their children were Richard, Jone, and Grace. Richard born c1570, married Ursula Rushe, and they produced about 11 children.
At Yeovil, Robert Kellaway married Gillian Trent in 1573, and their son William was baptised in 1575. Nicholas Kellaway (c1555-1630) married Cecily Bonfaser in 1579, and their children were Mathew 1582, Elizabeth 1584.
At Ilminster, where there may have been a connection with Sir John's son George, George Calwaye (1570-1639), of Greenham and Ilminster, possibly his grandson, had children George, Alice, John and William, between 1600 and 1610. All names that match the Rockbourne family.
At Preston Plucknet, in the east near Wiltshire, Robert Keyleway married a Berrington lady, and their children were Robert, Thomas, William, and Frances, born between 1600 and 1610.
Robert remained at Preston Plucknet, Thomas went to Bath.
Also near Wiltshire, John Kallawaye gentleman, died at Frome in 1595. Children, Susanna, Alice, Thomas, Edmundus, Henry, John, and Jane, had been born there between 1573 and 1600. The last three however could not have been his, and it may be all were his grandchildren.
It is not clear who John was, as in the senior Dorset family John the son of Robert, grandson of Thomas, had died in 1568. He seems to have been too young to have been John's grandson John.
While Sir John's son John had been buried at Rockbourne in 1586.
There were many different spellings in the County. In later years the family spelling in Somerset, particularly to the west, was most commonly Calway.
DEVON IN THE 1500S
While Kellaway came to be the dominant spelling in Dorset, in Devon many family members in the 1500s were known as Stoford or Stafford. The name Callowe there came to be Callow, in a similar manner to Durham in the north, where Kellawe became Kellaw, then Kellow.
A large number however remained Kellaways or Kelways.
At Dolton, near Stafford Barton, the Stafford/Kellaway arms are seen in the stained glass windows, and carved pew ends. Philip Stowford was taxed for a valuable land property at Dolton in 1524.
Robert Stowford, presumably Philip's son, was there in 1542. John Stowford was a t Dolton in 1569.
The Stoford family were living at Dowland 1km away, where Thomas Stowford was in 1569, apparently with his son Thomas.
At Iddlesleigh 2km further there are Stafford arms on the pews. Robert Stafford married Elizabeth Menwenick there c1520.
At Uffculme, in 1547 Leonard Kelway alias Stoford married Jone Champeny. Their son James, born 1549, married Mary Read in 1582, as James Callowe.
Presumably Leonard's brother, Thomas Cayleway or Stofford, married Elizabeth Champenye in 1549.
Leonard and Jone's son James was born in 1548, as James Callowe he married Mary Read in 1582.
Later families in Uffculme used the spelling Callow.
There were Callowes at Crediton and Hemyock. Stofords at Ottery St Mary, Otterton, and Bideford.
A wide variety of spellings, whose descendants apparently largely became Callows.
Apart from John of Cullompton and his family, there were later Kellaways at Cullompton, where Simon Kellaway gent. married Edith Anthonie of Exeter in 1598. Presumably John's relatives, there were also Kellaways at Braunton.
Hugh Calaway paid tax at Broadwoodkelly in the 1524/5 Subsidy Rolls, while Sir William Kellaway owned land there.
John Kylway was at Yngwardlegh, Thomas Kelowse at Highampton.
In the 1542 Subsidy Rolls, John Keylway, presumably John's son, was at Inwardleigh, widow Joan Kellegh at Northlew.
Robert Stowford, presumably Philip's son, was now at Dolton, Leonard Stowford at Wetheruge, Hugh Stowford at Newton St Petrock.
In the 1569 Musters, Alexander Kaylway was now at Ingwarleigh, Robert Colwaye at Chulmlegh, near Cheldon, perhaps a move from the earlier manor.
John Stowford was now at Dolton. Thomas Stowford was at Dowland, possibly with his son Thomas.
At Exeter the numerous Kellaway families were later largely to become Callaways and Kelways.
Richard Kellaway had children Francis, Jone and Dorothy between 1571-76. Bennet Callwaye children Thomas, Jone, John and Jane, between 1574-87. Robert Kaylewaye children Richard, Jone, Anna and Elizabeth, between 1578-88.
John Kaylewaye a daughter Elizabeth in 1580, James Celloe daughter Jelliam in 1584, Clement Callwe daughter Jane in 1587. Thomas Callwe a daughter Grace in 1587, and George Callewy a daughter Edith in 1590.
The heir of John of Cullompton, Simon Kellaway (c1500-1569) had a son Simon (c1540-1623), who, in 1598 as Simon Kellaway gent. of Cullompton, married as his second wife, Edith Antonie of Exeter.
CORNWALL IN THE 1500S:
In Cornwall again there were a few references in the late 1300s and early 1400s.
However in the 1500s they appear to have been not only numerous, but prosperous. Presumably due to the mining for which the County had been noted, from perhaps as early as 2000 BC. Tin, copper, zinc, lead, iron and even silver, but particularly tin was present in vertical strata, which resulted in many separate mine shafts, over Cornwall, and also parts of Devon.
Considerable numbers of family members appear in the Lay Subsidy and Muster Rolls, of 1522, 1524, 1545, and 1569. There was a wide variety of different spellings, most of which later seem to have become Callaway or Callow.
At St Neot, a small village on Bodmin Moor, in 1522, Robert and John Calwaye.
In 1524, John Calwaye was listed with valuable land, while unusually we had Robert de Est Kellyowe and Robert de West Kellyowe, both presumably the same man, with two businesses. But a strange name.
In 1543 John Calwaye was only goods again.
In 1552 at St Neot, John Callwaye married Alice Fisher, and they had 2 children. Between 1552-66 John Kyllow had 2 children. A Kelow, 2 children between 1565-71. Vynsent, the son of Jasper Calway was c in 1571. Roger Kyllow had 3 children between 1586-1602. John Callaway 6 between 1590-1606.
About this time Joanne the heiress daughter of John Callwaye, married John Tubb of Trengoff in nearby Warleggan. In the 1569 Musters we had John and Michael Kellyowe. 47 years later, John would have been a son or grandson of the earlier John.
It is of interest that there are some important stained glass windows at St Neots, possibly originating with Robert Tubbe, vicar from 1508-44, and donated by the Borlasse, Martyn, Molton, Tubbe and Callaway families. Familiar names, and stained glass.
Bodmin had been a family home as early as the 1390s, at least.
At Bodmin in 1524, Thomas Kyllyowe. In 1543, he was Thomas Killyow.
In Warleggan in 1522, Robert Killiowe, in 1524 he was Robert Kelowe.
William Kellowe had 4 sons between 1549-65, Roger and 4 Johns, 3 of whom died. Roger married Florence Laricke in 1571. George Killiowe married Alice Wilcock in 1571, and they had 5 children between 1574-82.
We were seeing presumed descendants of the early Killiowe family.
They were still very prominent at Lansallos, where John Killiowe had a son John c1490, who married Margaret Cowlyn and produced children Thomas, John, Loveday, Thomasin and Joane.
Thomas married Joan Trehake, and from about 1540, produced children John, Thomas, Johanna, and Margaret. John and his wife Ann Trevanion had children John, Hercules, William, Charles, Thomas, Reynell, Sibill, Ann and Jane. Their son John and his wife Ann Kendall had children John, William, Henry, Richard, Oliver, Thomas, Charles, and Elizabeth, from 1598.
There must have been many descendants from these families.
The earlier Killiowe family was still evident at Duloe with John Killiowe on the muster roll of 1569..
At St Kew in 1524 John Calwaye. In 1569, William and William Calwaye. In 1577 William Callaway married Angeta Yosters, they had 8 children. In 1586 Richard the son of Richard Callaway was baptised.
At St Columb Major in 1524, William Calway, in 1569, John, Richard, John, Edward and Robert. John had 3 sons there between 1546-54, Thomas 2 daughters, Richard's son Richard was c in 1571.
John had 3 children between 1578-84, Bennett a son Thomas in 1581, Kennell a daughter Florence in 1583, Fraunce Calwaie 3 children between 1581-5.
In a land transfer in 1581, William was referred to as William Kellway de Nankevell.
At St Columb the Lower in 1524, we have Richard and Rawlin Callwaie, and Richard Callwaie jnr.
At Mullion, in 1524, William Kellwa, 1543 William and Philip Kelwaye, 1569 John Kelwaye.
In Tintagel in 1524, William, Thomas and Richard Collow. In 1543, William and Richard Culloo, Henry and Thomas Cullowe. By that time, William, already wealthy, had doubled his tax level.
In Helston in 1524, John and William Kellowe.
In St Ewe in 1524, John Caloes.
At Cubert in 1524, John Keyll, in 1543, John Kayll.
At Lanteglos in 1524, there was Joan Kelyowe.
About 1525, Margaret, the only daughter of John Kelway, married Henry Trecarell, Mayor of Launceston. He rebuilt the Church of St Mary Magdalene, Launceston, where the Kelway arms can be seen, before he died in 1544.
At St Germans in 1543, Thomas and John Cullowe.
Jane Kellyow was at Illogen in 1543.
At Minster in 1543, John Calway.
In Landhydrock in 1543, John and Roger Kyllow.
In Lelant, in 1543 there was William Kelway, in 1569 Robert and Richard Kelway.
At Poundstock in the 1569 Musters, Bennett, widow Margery, John and Edward, Cullow.
At Menheniot in 1574, George Kellowe had a daughter Jone.
At St Breward in 1577, Thomas the son of Richard Kelloe. Between 1578-81, John Kelloe had two daughters.
How many of the Lay Subsidy and Muster Roll people were the same person, particularly the Williams, we cannot be sure. But they were spread over much of the County. Some produced quite large families.
This treatise has of necessity concentrated on the two principal family Counties of Dorset and Devon, where the senior families appear to have lived continuously from the 1100-1200s.
There were of course other families in England after these times, mainly in the West Country, but also in London, and other Counties to the east and north.
In England, BMD information was required to be maintained in Parish Registers from 1538, and the surviving records from that time have provided considerable information on the descendants of both the senior and lesser families. From the later 1500s through the following centuries.
Apart from Dorset and Devon, while the families would have been present, there were not so many references until the 1500s in the other Counties.
In HAMPSHIRE, apart from the family of the second Sir William previously mentioned at Rockbourne, there are few references yet available from the 1500s.
Most later seem to have used the Callaway spelling.
At Fareham, Richard the son of Gilbert Callaway was baptised in 1597. He, as Gilbert Callawaie, and wife Ales, had a son in Southwick in 1592, so may have later moved to Fareham.
Also in Fareham, Philip and Ann Callaway had children, Elizabeth, Alse, William, Ellice and another son, between 1592 -1606.
At Hunton, John Callaway would have been born about 1590. At Bighton, Nicholas Callaway about 1585.
At Wickham, Richard about 1600, may have been the forebear of the later St Helens IOW family.
On the ISLE OF WIGHT, part of the County of Hampshire, but physically separate, while there had been no other references since Husbandman Christian Colway in the 1357 and 1378 Lay Sbsidy Rolls, the first of later Island families appeared.
Thomas Callawaye, had arrived, apparently as a 14 year old from Dewlish in Dorset, around 1556. Born in 1543, he married Agnes, and died at Brading in 1598.
It is not clear quite how he came to the Island, but Sir John's son John would have already been there, and the Dewlish manor families, who were well involved in business, were related.
In the Lay Subsidy Roll of 1592 Thomas was taxed for goods at Thorley. In 1600, his widow Agnes was taxed there.
Also at Brading in the late 1500s were Edward, and Thomas with his son John. There had been an Edward at Dewlish earlier, while Thomas was presumably the earlier Thomas.
John Callaway married Elizabeth Knight at Brading in 1574. Peter Callaway married Ann Woodyer in 1603, Francis Rumbridge in 1621. Philip Calloway married widow Mary Bramen in 1612.
Peter is another Dorset/Dewlish name, but Philip has Devon connotations.
At Freshwater, Henry Calawaye married Margery Eaton in 1588. Their son Henry was c in 1593. Richard Kelway married his first wife Elllnor Clarke there in 1606.
Freshwater/Yarmouth/Norton names later were to become Kellaway or Kelleway.
At Chale, brothers Richard and John Callaway would have been born around 1600.
The Isle of Wight was later to become the home of a number of apparently unrelated families, who had crossed from the mainland.
Perhaps attracted by life as “mariners” on the island, perhaps just a new life.
Later families on the Island would use the Kella/eway spellings in the west, Calla/oway spellings in the east.
In SUSSEX, there are as yet only a few records of the early families. All named Callaway or Calloway.
Charles Callaway of Rockbourne was mentioned at Petworth. The youngest son of Sir William, he married Mary Lull at Southwark London in 1599, but died in 1605. Their children, Elizabeth and Jacob, were born at Southwark between 1600-05. Son Charles was born postumously in 1606.
At Chichester, reaper John Callaway, born c 1510 at Stoneham, later moved to Donnington, had a son John about 1535, and died around 1575. His son John had children Ann 1568, Thomas 1573.
Thomas later had 7 children.
At Fishbourne, John Callaway had 3 children between 1615-23
At Sidesham Cutbert Callaway married Alice Busby of Birdham in 1567, their child Marut was born in 1572. He married second wife Elizabeth Faith at Fishborne in 1575. Their daughter Elizabeth born 1576.
At Lewes, Wattare Calloway had a son in 1611. William Calloway a daughter Mary in 1613.
In BERKSHIRE, at Wantage in 1588 a son John was born to George and Elizabeth Calaway.
A daughter Mary was born to a Calway family in 1595, while at Sparsholt in 1610 Thomas Kelloway married Alce Ducket.
Thomas would have been born about 1585, and was possibly a member of the earlier Dorset family. Their children, John, Mary, Thomas, Edward and Jasper, included sons who would later have descendants recorded at St Georges Chapel, New Windsor Castle.
Although there is no evidence available, names which could possibly indicate a link with the family of Sir John Callaway. Or possibly a George of Marnhull.
In KENT, John Callaway had “le tyle house” at Levisham in 1554.
James Caloway had a daughter Johan/Jane at Minster on Thanet in 1562.
Phebe Callaway married Johannes Symons at Bredhurst in 1596.
At Folkestone, Johannes Caloway had a daughter Elizabetha in 1585, and as John Calloway a daughter Julian in 1594.
In LONDON, where many more would follow later, they were first recorded at St Margarets Westminster, and at Southwark, in the late 1500s.
At St Margarets, Bridget, daughter of Mathewe Colloway, was born in 1594. In 1606, John the son of John Kellawaye. In 1612 Jentell, the daughter of Walter Kellaway.
Three families then, there would be several more at St Margarets in the 1600s.
Charles Callaway/Kellaway married Mary Lull at Southwark in 1599, and their 3 children were born there. Charles died in 1605.
In the north, at YORK, Richard Calloway had a daughter Janne in Ripon in 1574.
While there is no doubt family members were present in Ireland from early times, there have been surprisingly few references to them. Names such as Galway, which related to the Scottish Galloway, and of possible Norman/Viking origin, offer suggestions of family connection, while in Gaelic C, K and G, could be interchangeable.
In 1321 John Caylwy, thought to be John le Calewe, received one years protection from King Edward II for going to Ireland, possibly to assist put down the rebellion instigated there by the brother of Scottish Robert the Bruce.
In 1536 John Keylewey was listed in the Accounts of the Irish Army. There is little information of him, but in May 1538, John Kelway, presumably the same man, was Constable of the King's Castle of Rathmore on the Irish “Borders”, the limit of English territory known as “the pale”. After a failed meeting with a Turlough O'Toole, he was trapped and killed at a place called Three Castles by O'Toole and his men.
As were over 60 of the local people.
While his name appears to suggest a Dorset family, only Cornwall seems to offer possibility, and there is no indication as yet however to what family he may have belonged, or whether he had any descendants.
NICHOLAS OF FORSTON and CHARMINSTER
A series of wills beginning with that of Nicholas Kellaway of Forston and Charminster in Dorset, offers an insight to the families of Dorset after 1600. Nicholas would have been born about 1530-40, and his will was dated 1592. He was apparently a man of some local standing, and produced a family of six sons, Raffe, Christopher, Thomas, John, Erasmus and Henry, two daughters, Ellinor and Agnes.
Born from about 1565 on, they settled around Dorset, in particular at Piddlehinton, in the early 1600s.
Later family wills provided information on their descendants into the 1700s.
There is no confirmation of Nicholas’s father, although there was another Nicholas Kayleway/Calawaye listed for goods in the Lay Subsidy Rolls of 1525 and 1545 for Wyke Regis, 1543/4 for Marnhull, and 1543/5 for Bradford Abbas, near Sherborne. Suggesting he was a merchant, perhaps a “merchant of the staple”, born perhaps around 1500, but where we do not know. Nor his earlier family.
Having Thomas, John, Henry, Agnes and Ellinor among his own children, would generally match similar names in the senior recorded Dorset families of the time.
The two eldest sons Raffe/Ralph and Christopher, however were not.
In later families, there were to be a number of Christophers.
Nicholas's home, presumably at Forston, was just outside Dorchester, about 25km from Stowford Dorset, where Thomas, grandson of William, lived, and about 30km from Stalbridge. It was also the same distance from Bridport, where Gyles from Rockborne may have lived about 1550, but we have no indication of any link with Gyles and his family.
The most likely conclusion seems to be therefore that Nicholas was a son of the older Nicholas of 1525/45, who could have been born around 1500.
He seems unlikely to have been the grandson of the William who died at Marnhull in 1492 apparently without heir, or of his brother the Elder Thomas, unless an unrecorded or postumous son. More likely perhaps to be the son of one of the younger sons from the two wives of William; Moris, William, Peter, or the younger Thomas, who were presumably born between 1475-85.
We are not clear about any families of William and Peter, but the father of elder Nicholas was presumably born between 1460-1470, which leaves Moris. Apart from the Pedigrees, there is no other mention of him. Whether he survived, or had a family, we do not know, but he could fit.
Nicholas and his family, if thus descended from William of Sherborne, provide another link between the first de Caillouets and the Dorset families we have today.
They do seem to be closely connected to other Dorset families, by name, and later by the use of the COA.
Other options would be descent from an earlier unrecorded younger son of Edmund de Cayleway, or perhaps from an early Rockbourne family – Robert Keiway was not recorded anywhere in the Pedigrees.
A Nicholas Caleway was recorded in Herefordshire in 1400, Nicholas Kellowe in Surrey in 1438 and 1441.
There must have been a large number of unrecorded family members. But could Marnhull hold the key?
Of Nicholas's sons, the eldest Ralph, born c1565, initially may have lived at Nether Cerne, before moving to Forston and Charminster. His first wife Ann had a daughter Sara in 1591. By his second wife he had children Ann 1595, Nicholas 1597, Christopher c1597, Joan 1599, and George in 1610.
George may have gone to Broadwey/Upwey, and been the forebear of the later significant families there.
Second son Christopher, born c1570, married first Ann, then Grace, and had children Ellenor, William, Christopher, Ann, John, Jean, and Margaret between 1607 and 1619 at Charminster.
Thomas, born c 1570, had sons John, Thomas and Christopher . It seems likely it was his son Thomas who married Susan Loman at Piddlehinton in 1628.
Erasmus went to Godmanstone, where his family were Alice, John and Thomas.
Henry, born about 1575, was a husbandman at Frome Whitfield. He married Ellenor, and died in 1617.
At this stage it is not clear where John lived, apart from him having a daughter Elizabeth.
Ralph's family is quite well recorded from that time, and we have the descendants of Christopher, Thomas, and Erasmus.
In the Tudor period 1485-1603, under Kings Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Queen Mary and particularly Queen Elizabeth, England developed as a sea and trading power. The wool and textile trade expanded.
Internally land was enclosed, causing one of the first major instances of unemployment, but overall the Country began to prosper.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries and Chantries enabled the gentry to increase their wealth with the confiscated property, although much of this was dissipated and wasted. There was religious conflict between the new Protestants and the Catholics, both at home and abroad, while Puritanism was beginning to grow.
All of these factors had an influence on the descendants of the Caillouet family.
Whether from Dorset or Devon, the family had importance as country gentry, they had held high positions at Court, in the Church, in Trade, and in Law. They owned property in Worcestershire, Wiltshire, Hampshire, The Isle of Wight, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall in the West Country, Durham in the north, and in France.
They received favours from Plantagenet, Lancastrian and Tudor kings, and married into prominent families.
THE END OF AN ERA
Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, when the population of England had reached 5,000,000, less than a third of that of France, but with a national reputation as a naval power.
Growth as a trading nation, was evidenced by the establishment of the new East India Company, and England was becoming the wealthiest nation in Europe.
With the end of the Tudors, and the Elizabethan Age, the new century saw the end of the family of knights, their wealth and, for the family, of Rockborne.
It would now to be difficult to determine the family connections of the scattered descendants of William of Sherborne, or any of the earlier families. With no branch, or individual, seemingly having particular importance or authority.
Descendants of the Rockbourne knights are not certain. There may have been no direct male descendants of ffrancis or Thomas of Rockborne, but Giles could have had family in Bridport and south Dorset, possibly Charleton Musgrove. John on the Isle of Wight.
Henry perhaps around Totnes, Devon, or Ilminster, Somerset. George possibly Ilminster, or in Berkshire. Ffrancis’s brother John could have descendants near Rockborne in Hampshire, Edward perhaps in Devon or Somerset, Ambrose possibly Hampshire. Charles had family in London.
The descendants of William's son Thomas appear to have lived around Whitparish in Wiltshire, and Bradford Abbas in Dorset. Perhaps Dewlish, perhaps Marnhull. Those of the Stalbridge family are though not clear.
There must have been descendants of the Dewlish and Marnhull families in nearby villages, although the Marnhull families in particular seem to have included aliases.
The descendants of Nicholas of Forston and Charminster are recorded from their series of wills, around Charminster, Godmanston, and Piddlehinton. Later moving to Broadwey and around Abbotsbury.
There were descendants of the Dorset Gussage families.
There were descendants of the Devon families, in both north and south Devon.
In Wiltshire around Salisbury.
In Somerset around Wellington and Ilminster.
In the next Century there were families recorded in London and Westminster as well.
Apart from the aliases, there were the Weston, Stafford, Long and Webbe families.
The new Century would not see the same level of importance of family members, as the wealth and property had largely gone, and the descendants, although more numerous, were scattered, principally among the villages of the West Country.
Some were later to leave for other lands.
John Warwick Kellaway Revised from the first 1998 Edition
An alias is an assumed name.
The reasons for the use of the familyaliases that could continue for many years from the 13-1400s however remain obscure.
They were not used in the modern sense to disguise or hide identity, but rather it seems to identify a person.
And they could be used in reversed form.
We have learned that in the early days a family member could also be known by his home manor or location. Hence John le Calewe de Weston might also be known as John de Weston, Thomas Kaillewi de Stowford as Thomas de Stowford.
Tuderington/Tytherton in Wiltshire had the Kelwayes name attached after the family moved there, probably in the 1100s. Family members from the manor were then called de Kelwayes. Their name probably coming to describe the new English location, rather than their earlier French home.
Later a reverse example was of Edmund Longe de Kelwayes. The Long family held Kellaways for several hundred years after our family left. Initially they might use either name, or both.
Despite the first family alias, Kailleway alias Stoford, apparently being used at Dolton in 1200, these forms were however not used to any extent until the 1400s, when the Latin term “alias dictus” might be seen.
By the 1400s it seems many of the “occupational” names common today were being used, probalyly having begun as forms of an alias, such as John the Clerk. Those found have included Clarke, Baker, Gardiner, Kytchen, Carpynter, Carter, Knyght, Foster, Hunter, Goldsmyth, Archour, Bailli, Burges, Webbe, Weaver, Chamberleyn.
Several of them were used by our family members.
In 1445, Thomas Calawey alias Chamberleyn, perhaps the next family alias we are aware of, may have been named in a court case after a place called Chamberleyn.
Compton Chamberleyn is today located midway between Salisbury and Shaftesbury, 10km from Bapton and Stowford in Wiltshire, but otherwise has not been recorded relative to the family.
Again the Lord Chamberlain was an important position in the Royal Household, of Ducal status.
Perhaps therefore an occupational alias, rather than locational.
Later aliases, Clarke and Webbe, were clearly occupational. The clerk was educated, could read and write, and was a very important member of a community. A family member was presumably “le Clerk”.
Webb was a weaving term, which could actually be an older alias.
Rutter in Somerset may have been occupational, as was Foster/Forester in Durham.
Kellawaie alias George is a little less obvious. It appears to introduce an alternative Christian/First name, possibly indicating that the first individual had used that alias to differentiate himself from another with the same name.
It could also possibly relate to the mother's family name, where her family was more prominent.
Or perhaps a convenient business connection.
However there was a St George's Hundred containing Charminster, Stinsford and Stratton, which could have provided a locational basis for the name.
Family names could also derive from other means, such as the physical description of an individual.
Such as Longshanks, Crouchback, or in our case, the Bald. But these were not called aliases.
The use of aliases ceased about 200 years ago, and it is not certain how many of these “different name” aliases we see today as surnames do relate to our family, as some may come from different origins, but the DNA of the names does appear, in some cases at least, to match, and perhaps confirm our related origins.
It has been logistically impossible to quote all the sources herein.
Among numerous research areas, some of the principal references have been:
The Registers of the Companion of of the Conqueror
The Domesday Book
Heraldic Visitations of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, and Hampshire, from the 1500s and 1600s, which include family pedigrees
Burkes General Armory
List of Patrons of St Giles Church Kellaways, Wiltshire
The Register of Bishop Bek of Durham
The Registers of Bishops Edmund Stafford and Edmund Lacy of Exeter
Inquisitions Post Mortem for Devon, Dorset, Somerset and Hampshire
Feet of Fines for these Counties
From the Public Record Office: Pipe Rolls
Court Rolls Patent Rolls Close Rolls
Exchequer Subsidy Rolls
Lay Subsidy Rolls
Dorset and other County Wills
Ordnance Survey, and earlier Maps
Hutchins History of Dorset
Other Published Histories of the time
Grateful recognition is also due to the important work done by our numerous family researchers of this early period.
Sherrill Williams, Pat Schurr, Cary Moore, Enid Seton-Kellaway, Lesley Haigh, Sylvia Warham, Donna Morgan, Bruce Callaway, Bill Piper, Brian Willoughby.
This treatise has been amended and extended from the original copy of 1998.
It will hopefully be amended and extended, as further information is obtained.
Names in the later sections, particularly those in Counties with fewer of our
family members, have yet to be fully explored.
They offer the foundation for further family research.